A Greek army on the march : soldiers and survival in by John W. I. Lee

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By John W. I. Lee

Professor Lee presents a social and cultural heritage of the Cyreans, the mercenaries of Xenophon's Anabasis. whereas they've got frequently been portrayed as a unmarried summary political neighborhood, this ebook finds that lifestyles within the military used to be ordinarily formed through a suite of smaller social groups: the formal unit service provider of the lochos ('company'), and the casual comradeship of the suskenia ('mess group'). It contains complete therapy of the environmental stipulations of the march, ethnic and socio-economic relatives among the warriors, gear and delivery, marching and camp behaviour, consuming and ingesting, sanitation and treatment, and lots of different issues. It additionally accords exact realization to the non-combatants accompanying the warriors. It makes use of historical literary and archaeological proof, old and glossy comparative fabric, and views from army sociology and smooth battle reviews. This ebook is vital analyzing for an individual engaged on old Greek struggle or on Xenophon's Anabasis.

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5–7. An. 1–2. 148 The bloody setback of Neon’s foragers near Calpe was not the only defeat the army suffered along the Black Sea coast. 149 It was not that they were any less skilled. 151 The Cyreans by the summer of 400 bc were probably the most versatile, battle-hardened fighting force in the Greek world, better even perhaps than the Spartans, whose real strength lay largely in hoplite warfare. The army on the Black Sea coast, though, did not always fight as a team. There were too many temptations to go after provisions or plunder alone, and on several occasions small raiding units came to bad ends when their intended prey turned about and bit back hard.

These trees (An. 3) would have mostly been pines; see Amigues (1995) 72. g. An. 18–19 on the Harpasus (C ¸ oruh) River. 179–80; cf. An. 11. 67 An. 17. Scrub oak: Shiel (1838) 70; night attack: An. 4–27. An. 20–7. This was perhaps above the Zigana Pass, northwest of G¨um¨ushane: Lendle (1995) 273– 8; cf. 225. For another view, see Mitford (2000) and Manfredi (2004). 70 An. 1–8. 8–19. On the Pontic forest see Amigues (1995) 72. The drunken, crazed behavior the Cyreans exhibited (An. 20–2) on this occasion was probably the result of ingesting toxic honey containing grayanotoxins from rhododendron pollen; see Geroulanos ¨ et al.

89 Otherwise, Anatolia was a world of scattered villages and fortified strongholds. For larger sites, there exists a modicum of archaeological evidence. 90 Of the humbler settlements there survives no trace, although we can recover some of their characteristics by comparing the Anabasis evidence with the observations of nineteenth-century travelers and twentiethcentury anthropologists in central Anatolia. 91 In Armenia and northern Anatolia, the Cyreans tended to encounter villages in clusters.

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