A Guide to Methods in the Biomedical Sciences by Ronald B. Corley
By Ronald B. Corley
Hundreds of thousands of equipment were constructed within the a variety of biomedical disciplines, and people lined during this e-book symbolize the fundamental, crucial and most generally used tools in different varied disciplines.
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While the awarding of a Nobel Prize is sometimes controversial (we’ll come back to that later), the failure to award one to Avery has been considered by some to be one of the most egregious oversights in Nobel history. Within 20 years of the discovery of the 3-dimensional structure of DNA, its chemical structure was solved, DNA replication was understood, and the basic parameters of how DNA is precisely transcribed into RNA (ribonucleic acid), which is then translated into protein, became clear.
An understanding of the biology of these DNAs and their replication cycles was essential for producing cloned recombinant DNA. Plasmid A plasmid is a self-replicating extrachromosomal piece of DNA, which is usually double stranded and circular in nature. Plasmids are naturally found in bacteria where they frequently carry antibiotic resistance markers used by the host bacterium for survival. The accumulation of plasmids accounts for much of the antibiotic resistance evident in new strains of bacteria that are plaguing our hospitals.
Two types of gel matrices are commonly used for the separation of nucleic acids: those made from polyacrylamide, and those using agarose. When a mixture of DNA fragments is applied to one end of the gel and subjected to an electric current, the DNA fragments migrate toward the positive pole of the field, the anode, due to the negatively charged phosphate groups that make up the DNA backbone. Following electrophoretic separation, the DNA can be visualized by one or more methods as discussed below.