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A Paradigm Lost: The linguistic thought of Mikołaj by Joanna Radwanska-Williams

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By Joanna Radwanska-Williams

The final conception of language of Mikołaj Kruszweski (1851-1887) is, this e-book argues, a “lost paradigm” within the background of linguistics. the concept that of 'paradigm' is known in a widely construed Kuhnian feel, and its applicability to linguistics as a technology is tested. it really is argued that Kruszewski's conception used to be a covert paradigm in that his significant paintings, Ocerk nauki o jazyke ('An define of the technological know-how of Language', 1883), had the aptitude to be seminal within the background of linguistics, i.e. to accomplish the prestige of a 'classical text', or 'exemplar'. This capability used to be now not learned simply because Kruszewski's impression used to be hindered by way of numerous historic components, together with his early loss of life and the simultaneous consolidation of the Neogrammarian paradigm, with its emphasis on phonology and language switch. The publication examines the highbrow history of Kruszweski's notion, which used to be rooted, partly, within the culture of British empiricism. It additionally discusses Kruszewski's courting to his instructor Jean Baudouin de Courtenay (1845-1929), his angle in the direction of the Neogrammarian stream in linguistics, the ambivalent reception of his thought by means of his contemporaries, and the impression of his paintings at the linguistic concept of Roman Jakobson (1896-1982).

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Deduction is only an interpretation of the implications of what is already known; it does not add new information. Mill's view of the relationship between deduction and induction can be seen in his critique of the syllogism (cf. McRae 1973:xxviii-xxx). For example, in the Aristotelian syllogism: "All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore Socrates is mortal", both the major and the minor premise are inductive propositions. The major premise, "all men are mortal", is a generalization from experience, while the minor premise, "Socrates is a man", is an observation.

Indeed, Baudouin's discussion of the structure of grammar would not seem out of place in a textbook on linguistics written in 1970; what is remarkable is that it was written in 1870. This would date the beginning of structuralism as simultaneous with the beginning of the neogrammarian movement, and not in opposition to the neogrammarian movement (at least not at its inception); we can only speculate whether Baudouin's ideas would have had a greater impact in the 38 A PARADIGM LOST West if he had published his lectures in a systematic form.

4 Note that this 3 For a discussion of Helmholtz's role in the institutionalization of experimental psychology, see Woodward & Ash (1982:147-166). 4 For an evaluation of Fechner's psychophysics, see Woodward & Ash (1982:65-87). HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 23 is very close to Descartes' thesis of the interaction of body and soul. Fechner determined experimentally, by recording his subjects' reported reactions, that an increment in the intensity of a sensory stimulus was not arithmetically proportional to the increment in the subject's perception of the stimulus.

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