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A Short Course in Foundation Engineering by N.E. Simons and B.K. Menzies (Auth.)

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By N.E. Simons and B.K. Menzies (Auth.)

Even if there at the moment are a number of computing device programmes for fixing all kinds of starting place layout difficulties, the necessity to fee those outputs through 'hand-calculation' has turn into extremely important. This ebook concentrates on getting the basics correct after which utilizing them in sensible applications.

The e-book is illustrated with various labored examples and with quick-reference tables and charts

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60 40 * 40 σ> σ ·♦-» 1 / 20" / Ellipse fitted at axes * ^ \\ \\ CL o c u a 20 n V . 1971 ) Modified conventional triaxial cell (after Arthurand Philips, 1973) oo 80, Γ 60 40 20 0 - · ^ . \ *·» # \ - \ -4t y " ^\^' /'. O s \ >»s\ \Nl . 1 . 1 20 4 0 60 80 IOO °/o of S y with 0*90° O 2 0 4 0 60 8 0 «OO °/oof SuWithe^O 0 Fig. 20 Polar diagrams showing variations of soil strength measured in compression tests: Θ denotes inclination of bedding with respect to vertical axis of test specimen (a) drained tests on dense rounded Leighton Buzzard sand, after Arthur & Menziesf 1971); (b) undrained tests on lightly over-consolidated Weiland clay, after Lo( 1965); (c) undrained tests on heavily overconsolidated blue London clay, after Simons (1967); (d) undrained tests on heavily overconsolidated London clay, after Bishop (1967) ferences in type of apparatus include the control of deformation (one stress control, the other, displacement control), the geometric proportions of the specimens, and the application of the boundary stresses (one with uniform pressures on each face and one with rigid ends).

20(a) adequately represents the variation. An elliptical variation of strength with direc­ tion was first proposed by Casagrande and Carillo (1944) in a theoretical treatment. 20(b)). Simons (1967) on the other hand, found a non-elliptical variation 24 ■ φ ♦ —m Direct shear Compression Extension Circle Ellipse fitted at axes ID— A //III - 20 40 6O 8O ΙΟΌ I20 I40 I6O Percentage of triaxial compression S^with bedding horizontal -ek T Fig. 20(c)). 20(d)). Geometrical anisotropy, ox fabric as it is sometimes called, not only gives rise to strength variations with orientation of the test axes but is also probably partly the cause of undrained strength variations between test type.

6X1 = 316 kN/m 2 . This is satisfactory. 58 Width of foundation (B) not less than 1 m. 0X100 These values are based on the assumption that the foundations are carried down to unweathered rock The resistance to sliding along the base may be assessed as follows, neglecting the passive resistance of the soil which may be affected by softening, etc. 75 times the undrained shear strength. For further discussion on adhesion between clay and concrete, see Chapter 6. Factor of safety against sliding = 150/75 = 2.

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