Bioenergetics 3 by David G. Nicholls, Stuart J. Ferguson,
By David G. Nicholls, Stuart J. Ferguson,
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2 Ionophores. Schematic function of four ionophores. (a) Valinomycin is a mobile carrier ionophore able to cross the lipid bilayer transporting a K + ion. Note that the ion's hydration sphere is lost and replaced by the ionophore. (b) Gramicidin is a channel-forming ionophore, with less selectivity than valinomycin but much higher activity. (c) Nigericin is a hydrophobic weak carboxylic acid permeable across lipid bilayer regions as either the protonated acid or the neutral salt. Nigericin has a selectivity K + > Rb + > Na+.
1) Gibbs energy changes themselves are used in the description of substrate reactions feeding into the respiratory chain and of the ATP that is ultimately synthesized. (2) The oxido-reduction reactions occurring in the electron transfer pathways in respiration and photosynthesis are usually quantified not in terms of Gibbs energy changes but in terms of closely derived redox potential changes. 1 Gibbs energy and entropy changes in isolated and closed systems. Isolated, closed and open systems exchange, respectively, neither enthalpy nor material, enthalpy alone (AH), and enthalpy plus material (Am) with their surroundings.
For example, if FCCP induces proton permeability in mitochondria, it can generally be assumed that the effect will be similar in thylakoids, bacteria and synthetic bilayers. In contrast, a transport protein may not only be specific to a given organelle but may be restricted to the organelle from one tissue. 2), where it is involved in the export of intermediates for fatty acid synthesis, but is absent from heart mitochondria. The strongest evidence for the involvement of a protein in a transport process is often the existence of specific inhibitors.