Biological physics by Philip Nelson
By Philip Nelson
The 1st textual content of its sort, organic PHysics synthesizes info from the constructing box of organic physics. The textual content specializes in new leads to molecular vehicles, self-assembly and single-molecule manipulation,integrating those subject matters with classical effects. The textual content additionally presents foundational fabric from the rising box of nanotechnology. equipped round a self-contained middle, the textual content is aimed at undergraduate scholars who've taken 365 days of calculus-based physics. also, there are "Track-2" sections that comprise extra complicated fabric for senior physics majors and graduate scholars.
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A more serious notational problem is that diﬀerent books use the same symbol µ (the “chemical potential” deﬁned in Chapter 8) to mean two slightly diﬀerent things: either the derivative of the − free energy with respect to n (with units J mol 1 ), or the derivative with respect to N (with units J). This book always uses the second convention (see Chapter 8). 6 To avoid this confusion, recall that in this book the word “mole” in formulas is just an abbreviation for the number Nmole . When convenient, we can express our molecular energies as multiples of − mole 1 ; then the numerical part of our quantities just equals the numerical part of the corresponding molar quantities.
4 on page 26 makes more precise this book’s use of the unit “mole,” and relates it to other books’ usage. The big picture Let’s return to this chapter’s Focus Question. 2 discussed the idea that the ﬂow of energy, together with its degradation from mechanical to thermal energy, could create order. 2 on page 10), then claimed that life, too, exploits this loophole in the Second Law of thermodynamics to create—or rather, capture—order. Our job in the following chapters will be to work out the details of how this works.
Further reading [[Student version, December 8, 2002]] 25 force and potential energy of a spring, f = kx, E = 12 kx2 . potential energy in Earth’s gravity =(mass)·g·(height). potential energy of a charged object in an electrostatic potential ﬁeld =qV . electric ﬁeld, E = −dV /dx. force on a charged body, f = qE. electric potential created by a single point charge q in an inﬁnite, uniform, insulating medium, V (r) = q/(4πε|r|), where ε is the permittivity of the medium. The electrostatic self-energy of a charged sphere of radius a is q 2 /(8πεa).