Bipolar Depression: A Comprehensive Guide by Rif S. El-Mallakh, S. Nassir Ghaemi
By Rif S. El-Mallakh, S. Nassir Ghaemi
Even if melancholy is the most typical presentation of bipolar sickness, right prognosis quite often calls for a background of mania and hence provides an impressive problem. This ebook presents clinicians with the required tips to differentiate this ailment and pursue a suitable healing path. It brings jointly a staff of medical investigators who supply state-of-the-art learn at the subject and handle the main severe matters concerning its therapy. Bipolar melancholy first introduces a hierarchical version for analysis to permit the clinician to differentiate among bipolar and unipolar melancholy, addressing difficulties of misdiagnosis and overdiagnosis in addition to differentiating attention-deficit/hyperactivity illness (ADHD) and bipolar sickness. Early chapters overview the neurobiology and genetics of this hugely heritable , offering experiences of neurotransmitter functionality and mind imaging reports and documenting the susceptibility of particular chromosomes as loci for bipolar sickness. different chapters tackle the actual problems with bipolar melancholy in kids, for whom a analysis is mainly problematical, and suicide, targeting the necessity for overview in the course of either acute and upkeep remedy with interventions acceptable to a patient's indicators and background. Bipolar melancholy deals evaluations of particular remedy ways: -Lithium and antiepileptic medications: that includes a overview of the latest study at the use of lithium, during which larger doses are proven to be powerful, plus insurance of lamotrigine, valproic acid, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate. -Antidepressants: supplying new views on a fancy box, together with a dialogue of the randomized medical trial literature and observational reviews on their use, and bringing up cautions concerning unwanted effects. -Antipsychotics: comparing the variation among first- and second-generation medicinal drugs and discussing their function in controlling acute depressions. -Novel ways to remedy: together with using peculiar neuroleptics, electroconvulsive treatment, transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, ketogenic nutrition, omega-3 fatty acids, myo-inositol, and dopamine agonists. -Psychological interventions: targeting the inclusion of cognitive-behavioral remedy or interpersonal social rhythm remedy for nonmelancholic depressions in sufferers who had formerly got psychoeducation. regardless of the previous decade's advances in perform and examine, there continues to be a lot room for development in figuring out and treating bipolar melancholy. This ebook blazes a path towards that aim, commencing new doorways in spotting adjustments among bipolar and unipolar types of melancholy whereas delivering either researchers and clinicians key insights into this troubling sickness.
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Additional info for Bipolar Depression: A Comprehensive Guide
2003; Petty et al. 1993). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) GABA levels in euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder were the same as those in control subjects (Berrettini et al. 1982, 1986); therefore, low GABA levels may be a characteristic of depressive episodes in general. There is also a complex array of endocrine findings, most involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA). Reported HPA abnormalities include increased cortisol excretion with reduced sensitivity to negative feedback regulation, resulting in an increased incidence of dexamethasone nonsuppression in both bipolar and nonbipolar depressions (Stokes et al.
Br J Psychiatry 175:537–543, 1999 Baldessarini RJ, Faedda GL, Hennen J: Risk of mania with antidepressants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:298, 2005 Benazzi F: Prevalence and clinical features of atypical depression in depressed outpatients: a 467-case study. Psychiatry Res 86:259–265, 1999 Benazzi F: Borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder in private practice depressed outpatients. Compr Psychiatry 41:106–110, 2000 Benazzi F: The clinical picture of bipolar II outpatient depression in private practice.
Another study involved a 6-year follow-up of adolescents and reported improvement in hyperactivity but some persistence of attentional deficits (Achenbach et al. 1998). Compared with the century-old extensive literature on bipolar disorder (Trede et al. 2005), these data on the course of illness that support the validity of the concept of adult ADHD appear far from convincing, suggesting even more caution in diagnosing and treating adult ADHD. It is worth noting that adult patients often seeking amphetamine stimulants for ADHD may be engaging in substance abuse.