Brickwork and paving : for house and garden by Michael Hammett
By Michael Hammett
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Chilly shaped structural participants are getting used extra commonly in regimen structural layout because the international metal strikes from the construction of hot-rolled part and plate to coil and strip, usually with galvanised and/or painted coatings. metal during this shape is extra simply brought from the metal mill to the producing plant the place it's always cold-rolled into open and closed part individuals.
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Extra info for Brickwork and paving : for house and garden
Bricks are also made of concrete – crushed rock aggregate bound with Portland cement. Sand, lime and crushed flint are used to make calcium silicate bricks, which are also known as sandlime and flintlime bricks. In some countries, bricks made from these alternative materials have a greater share of the overall market than they do in Britain. Pavers are made of clay, but concrete pavers have the lion’s share of this market as they cost less to produce. The information and comments in this book are primarily concerned with clay bricks and clay pavers, but many of the comments and descriptions of work apply to all material types.
Improvements in kiln design and later the development of continuously burning multi-chamber and tunnel kilns, increased efficiency as did the use of coal, coke breeze and oil as fuels. Prior to this period, only the shallow lying deposits of alluvial clays and brick earths were accessible for brickmaking, but in the nineteenth century mining for coal and other minerals led to the discovery of different types of clay. Dense shales and fireclays, found in association with coal measures and rock-like marls, proved to be excellent raw materials for brick.
Bricks are tested for soluble salt content in accordance with the standards. Content is limited by defined maximum percentages, by mass, of soluble salts. Two categories are defined in BS 3921: low (L) and normal (N); and three in EN 771-1: no requirement (S0), a normal level (S1) and a low content (S2). In practice, soluble salt content is significant when deciding what mortar to use for brickwork. When bricks with normal levels of soluble salt content (categories N and S1) are to be used for brickwork that is liable to be substantially wet for prolonged periods, the mortar must be resistant to damage by sulfates (see page 31 for mortar durability).