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Bridge loads: an international perspective by Colin OConnor,Peter A Shaw,NetLibrary, Inc.

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By Colin OConnor,Peter A Shaw,NetLibrary, Inc.

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1919), for which tenders were called in 1899, was essentially similar in form, but with a single main span of 549 m, side-spans of 153 m, and a suspended span of 206 m. It was decided to erect this suspended span by cantilevering out each half from the main trusses. On the south side, this stage was almost completed when, on 25 August 1907, it collapsed (see Fig. 15). The structure was completely redesigned, with spans of 157, 549 and 157 m. This time the suspended span was assembled on falsework in the river near the bank, and then floated out beneath its final position.

The stress to cause failure, calculated on the uncracked area, was remarkably constant, ranging from 350 to 430 MPa, for both temperatures. The apparent applied stress, or stress on the gross cross-section, was somewhat more. For comparison, the ultimate stress in a standard tension test was 463 MPa. Fatigue performance is commonly represented on a graph of stress range (S) against the number of cycles to failure (n) such as those shown in Fig. 24. These curves include those for (a) a typical rolled beam, (b) a welded girder, and (c) a rolled beam with cover plates, the stress being calculated at the cover plate end; they are taken from Fisher (1977:19).

Alternatively, reversed yielding of some parts of the structure may occur under repeated loading. In this case, the stress-strain curve shown in Fig. 1 (b), which has formed the basis of this discussion, must be modified, for repeated reversed yielding will cause a reduction in the length of the yield plateau, shown as the horizontal line to C. The ductility of the material may be exhausted, stresses will rise into the region shown as the strain-hardening zone in the figure, and fracture may occur.

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