Construction surveying & layout by Paul Stull
By Paul Stull
A realistic consultant to simplified development surveying. the right way to divide land, use a transit and tape to discover a recognized element, draw a correct survey map out of your box notes, use topographic surveys, and how you can point and set grade. you will how you can make a survey for any residential or advertisement lot, driveway, street, or bridge - together with find out how to determine cuts and fills and calculate excavation amounts. Use this consultant to make your individual surveys, or simply learn and confirm the accuracy of surveys made through others
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You will need to plan lines for a wing abutment. If piers also are required, you can show the work along with that for the abutment. As shown in Figure 4-9, first establish the centerline of the bridge (called the axis of the bridge). Generally, this is an extension of the road centerline. Second, set at least two points in the road centerline 200 feet apart. Put the first point 50 feet from the proposed stream face of the abutment. These are reference points only. They are intended as baselines for all other lines and points.
The angle turned on point PC from G to 2 = 2D, and from G to 3 = 3D. 46 Construction Surveying & Layout Do the following calculations based on geometry and trigonometry. G-PC-O = G-PT-O = 90° G-PC = G-PT, and G-PC-PT = G-PT-PC = 1/2I I = PC-O-PT, and PC-O-G = PT-O-G = 1/2I G-PC-1 = 1/2 (PC-O-1) = D G-PC-2 = 1/2 (PC-O-2) = 2D G-PC-3 = 1/2 (PC-O-3) = 3D Because the chords are equal, PC-O-1 = 1-O-2 = 2-O-3. Chord 3-PT is not a full chord and therefore is a subchord. Then 3-PC-PT is a subdeflection angle.
Set points 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 on the baselines, with the points at the ends of lines intersecting on the pier centers. Choose some standard of angle that gives you an easy computation, for instance, 45°. Because pier 1 stands at Stations 12 + 95, 70 feet from the 62 Construction Surveying & Layout baseline at Station 12 + 25, point 14 lies on the baseline 70 feet from the centerline. This establishes the 45° angle because the short sides of a 45° triangle are equal. Points 9, 10, and 13 also lie 70 feet from the baseline.