Dictionary Of Bio-technology by W Tang, S Q Song D Thangadurai

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By W Tang, S Q Song D Thangadurai

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Plural of bacterium. Bacterial toxin. A toxin produced by a bacterium, such as Bt toxin by Bacillus thuringiensis. Bacteriocide; bactericide. A chemical or drug that kills bacterial cells. Bacteriocin. A protein produced by bacteria of one strain and active against those of a closely related strain. Bacteriophage. A virus that infects bacteria. Also called simply phage. Altered forms are used in DNA cloning work, where they are convenient vectors. The bacteriophages most used are derived from two 'wild' phages, called M 13 and lambda (1).

Bio-accumulation. In an organism, concentration of materials which are not components critical for that organism's 36 Bio-assay survival. , DDT). -accumulate metals when grown in a solution of them, either as part of their defence mechanism against the poisonous effect of those compounds, or as a side-effect of the chemistry of their cell walls. Bio-accumulation is important as part of the microbial mining cycle, removing toxic metals from wastewater, as a purification (bioremediation) process, etc.

Basipetal. See acropetal. Basophil. A type of white blood cell (leucocyte), produced by stem cells in the red bone marrow. Batch culture. A suspension culture in which cells grow in a finite volume of liquid nutrient medium and follow a sigmoid pattern of growth. See continuous culture; batch fermentation. Batch fermentation. A process in which cells or microorganisms are grown for a limited time. At the beginning of the fermentation, an inoculum is introduced into fresh medium, with no addition or removal of medium for the duration of the process.

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