Die vermessene Theorie: Eine kritische Auseinandersetzung by Hanna-Maria Zippelius

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By Hanna-Maria Zippelius

Prof.emerit. Dr. Hanna-Maria Zippelius warfare bis 1989 ord. Professorin für Zoologie an der Uni Bonn. Sie struggle mehrere Jahre am MPI für Verhaltensphysiologie in Seewiesen tätig.

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Extra info for Die vermessene Theorie: Eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit der Instinkttheorie von Konrad Lorenz und verhaltenskundlicher Forschungspraxis

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Durch die Motivationstheorie ist auch festgelegt, wie Bereitschaft und Umwelt zusammenwirken. 1m Prinzip der doppelten Quantifizierung hat Lorenz dies naher spezifiziert. Aus der Verrechnung des Reizwertes der Umwelt mit der Rohe der Bereitschaft ergibt sich die Intensitat des ausgelosten Verhaltens; wobei vorausgesetzt wird, daB die Intensitat bei gleicher Rohe der Bereitschaft urn so groBer ist, je hOher der Reizwert ist. Bei gleichem Reizwert nimmt die Intensitat des Verhaltens mit steigender Bereitschaft zu.

Diese Vorstellung, daB das Ziel motivierten Verhaltens das Abarbeiten der Triebenergie ist, kommt auch in der Vorstellung der sogenannten Leerlaufhandlung zum Tragen. Eine Leerlaufhandlung kann unter extremen Bedingungen wie Triebstau auftreten; allein ihre DurchfUhrung fUhrt zu einer Befriedigung des Triebes, ohne daB dureh die Aktion etwas bewirkt wird. Charakteristisch fUr die Lorenzsche Theorie ist in erster Linie die Annahme, daB die drei Grundkomponenten Motivation, Umwelt und Verhalten als eindimensionale GraBen betrachtet werden.

H. ob beiden der gleiche EinfluB zukommt oder ob eine von beiden starkere Veriinderungen der Motivation bewirkt. Die Schwierigkeiten, die sich bei der 0berprufung der Annahmen einer Motivationstheorie ergeben, sind in erster Linie methodischer Art, da bisher keine akzeptablen MeBverfahren zur Bestimmung spezifischer Motivationen zur VerfUgung stehen. Mit Hilfe physiologischer Parameter wie Temperatur, Pulsfrequenz, Hautwiderstand ist nur eine allgemeine Erregung meBbar, aber nicht die spezifische Qualitat, die einer spezifischen Motivation zukommt.

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