Biophysics

Dyspnea: Mechanisms, Measurement and Management, 2nd Edition by Donald A. Mahler, Denis O'Donnell

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By Donald A. Mahler, Denis O'Donnell

Divided into 3 sections spanning the mechanisms of dyspnea, size and review suggestions, and administration techniques-this reference illustrates the effect of dyspnea on sufferers with persistent respiration affliction. With contributions by means of well-known specialists at the subject, this guide offers an abundance of sensible info and suggestions for sufferers with COPD and specializes in present therapy equipment for the comfort of breathlessness.

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John Scott Haldane (1860–1936) and Joseph Barcroft (1872–1947) revisited Boyle’s experiment using humans in an airtight chamber. Breathlessness became noticeable with a rise in PCO2 of as little as 1–2 mm whereas PO2 had to drop as much as 68 mm (12%). In the practical course on human physiology, Claude Gordon Douglas (1882–1963) and John Gillies Priestley (1880–1941) had all medical students re-breathe from a spirometer (i) filled with expired air, to experience progressive hypoxia and hypercapnia; (ii) filled with oxygen, to experience progressive hypercapnia alone; and (iii) filled with expired air scrubbing the carbon dioxide produced with soda lime to experience progressive hypoxia and hypocapnia.

Trans Ass Am Physiol 1954; 67:162–173. 43. Fritts HW, Filler J, Fishman AP, Cournand A. The efficiency of ventilation during voluntary hyperpnea: studies in normal subjects and in dyspneic patients with either chronic pulmonary emphysema or obesity. J Clin Invest 1959; 38:1339–1348. 44. Means JH. Dyspnea. In: Medicine Monograph. Vol. 5. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1924. History of Dyspnea 17 45. Cournand A, Richards DW. Pulmonary insufficiency, Part I: Discussion of a physiological classification and presentation of clinical tests.

Day after day, the central nervous system is inundated with afferent information from all internal and external sensory receptors. Conscious perception requires focus which is suppressed by sleep and enhanced by the state of alertness dependent on the reticular activating system. On the one hand, total airway obstruction may fail to arouse sleeping individuals (58). On the other hand, normal sensory information may be perceived as excessive in zealous people. Psychological factors have long been appreciated as factors influencing the perception of dyspnea.

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