Early Judaism: A Comprehensive Overview by John J. Collins, Daniel C. Harlow

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By John J. Collins, Daniel C. Harlow

Culled from The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism, a enormous, groundbreaking reference paintings released in past due 2010, Early Judaism: A accomplished Overview includes fifteen fine essays from a various team of the world over popular students. This quantity presents the main entire and authoritative assessment to be had of Judaism within the Hellenistic and early Roman sessions.

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There are also prophecies after the fact attributed to Daniel (4Q243-244, 245) and a similar text, 4Q390, variously identified as PseudoMoses or Jeremiah Apocryphon. There are Aramaic texts relating to Levi and Qahath, and an Aramaic Genesis Apocryphon. The Aramaic literature found at Qumran is not perceptibly sectarian. Since so many of the scrolls are dependent on biblical texts, there is a tendency to assume derivation from biblical prototypes. In some cases, this is justified. There are Targums of Leviticus and Job, and the Genesis Apocryphon and Aramaic Levi Document are obviously related to the biblical text.

It is now possible to get a more balanced view of the entire corpus. Whatever their relation to “Enochic Judaism,” the scrolls testify to the pervasive authority and influence of the Mosaic Torah. They provide important evidence about the development of the biblical text. The majority of the textual witnesses are close to the Masoretic Text, but there were also other textual forms in circulation. In some cases it is difficult to decide whether a given text is a variant form of the biblical text or a deliberate adaptation of it, in the manner of “rewritten bible,” such as we find in Jubilees.

Thebes Ni le EGYPT Memphis Alexandria Sea JUDEA Dead Jerusalem GALATIA Sinope Black Sea R. Ca sp ia n a Se A R A B I A ADIABENE ASIA MINOR Ti gr is Pergamum CAPPADOCIA M ES PHRYGIA Eup OP hra Tarsus Ephesus OT tes Athens AM R. PAMPHYLIA IA SYRIA Pumbedita Ctesiphon Antioch A Nehardea NI LO Y B Sidon BA Damascus CRETE Tyre MACEDONIA Thessalonica Mediterranean SICILY Tyrrhenian Sea a Se . Danube R d Re 0 0 Tarraco tic ria Ad PANNONIA A Rome L Y T Roman Empire c. E. Corduba S P A I N Po R. R. ne Emerita Lugdunum I Tagus R.

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