Number Theory

Elementary and Analytic Theory of Algebraic Numbers by Wladyslaw Narkiewicz

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By Wladyslaw Narkiewicz

The goal of this ebook is to provide an exposition of the idea of alge­ braic numbers, except for class-field idea and its effects. there are numerous how one can increase this topic; the most recent development is to forget the classical Dedekind idea of beliefs in favour of neighborhood equipment. even though, for numeri­ cal computations, worthwhile for purposes of algebraic numbers to different components of quantity conception, the previous technique turns out stronger, even if its exposition is clearly longer. nevertheless the neighborhood strategy is extra strong for analytical reasons, as established in Tate's thesis. hence the writer has attempted to reconcile the 2 ways, featuring a self-contained exposition of the classical viewpoint within the first 4 chapters, after which turning to neighborhood equipment. within the first bankruptcy we current the mandatory instruments from the speculation of Dedekind domain names and valuation concept, together with the constitution of finitely generated modules over Dedekind domain names. In Chapters 2, three and four the clas­ sical concept of algebraic numbers is constructed. bankruptcy five comprises the joys­ damental notions of the idea of p-adic fields, and bankruptcy 6 brings their functions to the learn of algebraic quantity fields. We contain the following Shafare­ vich's evidence of the Kronecker-Weber theorem, and in addition the most houses of adeles and ideles.

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Proof: (i) If a, b E R, b rf_ P, then v(a/b) 2: 0, hence ajb E Rv. If x E Rv, then we can write xR = I J-1, where I, J are ideals of R and P f J. 14 there is an ideal A c R not divisible by P, for which the product AJ is principal. Then xR = (AI)(AJ)-1, both ideals AI and AJ are principal, and if AI = aR, AJ = bR, then b rf_ P, and with a suitable c E R we get x = acjb. 26 shows that Pv = 1rRv. (ii) This assertion follows from the observation that pm ={a E R: v(a) 2: m}. 26 shows that Pv = 1rRv with 1r E P\P 2 , thus PvC PRv.

43. If R is a Dedekind domain and h "'h, J1 "'J2 are two pairs of its fractional ideals, which are isomorphic as R-modules, then the products hJ1 and I2J2 are also isomorphic. 39 implies the existence of a non-zero a E K, the field of fractions of R, such that I 1 J 1 = ahh, and this shows that the map x t--+ ax of J 2 J 2 onto I 1 J 1 is an isomorphism. D This proposition implies the compatibility of the multiplication of ideals with the partition of all fractional ideals into classes of isomorphic ideals, and so permits us to define a multiplication in the set of these classes in the following way: if c(I), c(J) are classes containing I and J, respectively, then their product is defined by c(I)c(J) = c(IJ).

Xn· The R-module generated by x 1 , ... , Xn is obviously free and contains M. Now we apply induction in n. For n = 0 there is nothing to prove. Assume thus the truth of our lemma for all R-modules contained in a free R-module with n-1 free generators. Let M beaR-module contained in a freeR-module Fn with n free generators x 1, ... , Xn, and let Fn-l be the free R-module generated by the first n - 1 of them. Every element x of M can be written as r1x1 + · · · + rnXn with ri E R, and the map f: x f--7 rn is a homomorphism of M into R.

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