Elements of Electronics: for Physical Scientists by R. L. Havill, A. K. Walton (auth.)
By R. L. Havill, A. K. Walton (auth.)
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Publish yr be aware: First released may possibly 1st 2000
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Extra resources for Elements of Electronics: for Physical Scientists
13b. The input voltage Vs must be greater than the breakdown voltage VB' The operating conditions are deduced as follows. Kirchhoff's laws give I+h =/s ; Vs =/sR s + V; li. 13a) provided that the intercept of the load line with the static characteristic is in the avalanche region. 12. However, under variable load conditions, a lower limit is set on R, by the maximum power that may be dissipated in the Zener diode . Maximum dissipation occurs for minimum loading and amounts to VB(Vs - VB)/Rs when R L = 00.
Unfortunately, inductors tend to be bulky and expensive and are usually avoided in favour of more economic filtering and regulation . In a useful variant of the re-sectlon filter, the inductor is replaced by a resistor and again very low ripple is achieved. However, this variant is restricted to low-current applications in which the ohmic, direct, voltage drop across the resistor is not excessive and regulation is of secondary concern. An attractive alternative way of avoiding an inductor is to follow the reservoir capacitor with a Zener-diode circuit as described in the next sect ion .
LOb . 36) Since Vin t is a legitimate potential difference , it seems logical to assume that in the presence of some additional externally applied potential difference V, the electrons will respond to the total potential difference . 37) where the primes denote the new carrier densities. 37 becomes to a good approximation =- =exp [e(V - nn' Pn' -X. 39) p The minority-carrier density is evidently modified by the factor exp(eV/kT) at the edge of the depletion region by the application of a bias potential V.