Epistemic Justification and the Skeptical Challenge by H. Vahid
By H. Vahid
This booklet explores the idea that of epistemic justification and our knowing of the matter of skepticism. offering severe exam of key responses to the skeptical problem, Hamid Vahid provides a thought that is proven to paintings along the internalism/externalism factor and the thesis of semantic externalism, with a deontological belief of justification at its middle.
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530). Now, given that the traditions of the tribe are a poor guide to truth, they would infect the fabric of daily judgments (of the members of the community) they give rise to, resulting, in turn, in those judgments frequently go wrong. So there must be quite a few counterexamples around and by ignoring them our agent has formed his beliefs in an irresponsible and culpable manner. Thus, contra Alston, the agent is not deontologically justified in his beliefs formed on the basis of the tribe’s traditions.
Whereas, the notion of a responsibly formed belief is tied to what the agent does, and it is attributable to him only if he can be held accountable for holding the belief on the basis of what seems to him to be adequate grounds. The notion of responsibility is, thus, intimately connected to how things seem from the subject’s perspective, a feature that is completely alien to the notion of strong justification thus conceived. Furthermore, the notion of weak justification seems equally inadequate to perform the task it is intended for.
In what follows, I shall argue that both these charges are unfounded. I begin however by examining certain attempts at introducing and articulating the deontological conception of justification. A closer look at the debate would reveal that these attempts usually help themselves with question-begging assumptions and unargued premises. One of the most extensive treatments of this conception of justification is that of William Alston who, in a series of articles, seeks to identify its proper form and assess its feasibility by comparing it to other accounts of epistemic justification (Alston 1985, 1988).