Epistemic Reasoning and the Mental by Mikkel Gerken (auth.)
By Mikkel Gerken (auth.)
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32 Epistemic Reasoning and the Mental However, I maintain – with as much boldness as I can muster – that such warrant is involved in a hybrid account of knowledge. f Hallmarks of Gettier-style cases It will be worthwhile for the ensuing discussion to note two hallmarks of Gettier cases. The hallmarks are not uncontroversial. But they will be relied upon as working hypotheses in the ensuing investigation. (Hallmark one) Gettier-style cases defeat knowledge without defeating (or affecting) warrant.
Indeed, I assumed that a non-lucky truth-connection could be established only by the exercise of a cognitive competence which is truth-conducive in epistemically normal circumstances. Moreover, I suggested that the notion of epistemically normal circumstances might also be invoked in a hybrid theory of knowledge. Specifically, I suggested that the elusive fourth condition in such a theory might be specified in terms of epistemically normal circumstances. I will now provide a working-characterization of epistemically normal circumstances by assimilating it, in central respects, to the more familiar notion of an epistemically relevant alternative.
The purely objective norm is entirely detached from the subject and her circumstance. But the subject is epistemically evaluated according to her circumstance. The idea that the epistemic norms must reflect the agent’s competencies and circumstances has been taken to motivate a strong deontological view of epistemic warrant. Such a view is expressed by, among many others, Roderick Chisholm: ... every person is subject to a purely intellectual requirement – that of trying his best to bring about that, for every proposition he considers, he accepts h if and only if it is true (Chisholm 1977, p.