Consciousness Thought

Epistemology: Classic Problems and Contemporary Responses by Laurence Bonjour

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By Laurence Bonjour

I savor a able and brainy interpreting event. i do know it sounds as if a lot of this global is loopy for fluff. we now have an leisure that frequently presents trifling items of unimportant light-weight productions. There are a few inane motion picture stars advertising insipid exhibits whereas intermixing irrational worldviews. sure, that is simply leisure. And people should have senseless musings and pleasant entertainment.
Nonetheless, what we'd like extra are powerful and thorough trained philosophical literature. In BonJour's Epistemology, the following we now have "a lucid protection of internalist, Cartesian foundationalism" (Ernest Sosa).

Among bankruptcy matters are:
- Descartes,
- A Priori
- the matter of Induction
- different Minds
- Quine
- Foundationalism V Coherentism

Very few works of Epistemology are intellectually obtainable to the philosophically unseasoned. This booklet is an exception to that rule. it is a pondering man's basic advent to epistemic matters, difficulties, and attainable strategies. it is a positive learn for college kids without or with an avowed epistemic stance. BonJour doesn't vigorously implement his epistemic standpoint at the uninformed, yet he discusses and as he writes "suggests" considerate and passable solutions. my very own epistemic province is sharply against the author's, however I luxuriate in trained and earnest and pensive deliberations on fact and information. i might relatively abstain from a sit-com than an excellent epistemic treatise similar to this one BonJour has rendered.

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Example text

Moreover, in describing cases of this kind, it is sometimes tempting, and perhaps even useful in some ways, to temporarily take the point of view of the people in question and thus describe the situation by saying that they knew the claim in question—that is, that from their perspective it clearly seemed that they knew. According to all versions of the traditional conception of knowledge, however, such ascriptions of knowledge where the proposition in question is false are always mistaken, however reasonable and obvious they may have seemed to the people in question.

This might involve, as the formulation just given seems to suggest, a two-stage process: for example, my wife suggests to me that perhaps the roof is leaking, and after considering the evidence, I end up becoming convinced that this is indeed what is going on. It is also possible, however, that the truth of the proposition strikes me as obvious as soon as it enters my mind, without any preliminary stage of consideration. But while this is one way in which a condition of the indicated sort might be satisfied, it seems reasonably clear that it is not the only way, that people can and do know many things at a particular time that they do not have explicitly in mind at that time.

Here the last part of the specification is essential, for there are other sorts of reasons or justification that I might have for holding a belief that would not be of the right kind to yield knowledge. I might believe something out of loyalty to a friend or out of commitment to a religious tradition (also a sort of loyalty) or perhaps even just because it makes me happier to do so, but such beliefs do not thereby constitute knowledge even if they should happen to be true. What is needed for knowledge, according to the traditional conception, is a reason or justification of a sort that is truth-conducive: one that increases or enhances (to the appropriate degree—see below) the likelihood that the belief is true.

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