Fallen Angels: Balthasar Bekker, Spirit Belief, and by Andrew Fix (auth.)
By Andrew Fix (auth.)
Dutch Reformed pastor Balthasar Bekker (1634-1698) has lengthy been famous as a key determine in spite of everything of the witchcraft persecutions in early smooth Europe. With the e-book of his enormous four-volume paintings The international Bewitched Bekker argued opposed to the temporal task of the satan and evil spirits in addition to opposed to the truth of witchcraft, sorcery, and spirit ownership. but Bekker's principles drew competition from Dutch Reformed priests who charged that his use of Cartesian philosophy to reject the temporal job of spirits threatened a lot of conventional non secular religion.
This ebook argues that it wa Bekker's exegesis of biblical passages during which spirits and spirit task have been pointed out that was once a much larger hazard than his Cartesian metaphysics to the literal interpretation of the Bible which used to be the highbrow cornerstone of Dutch reformed confessionalism, dominant within the church because the Synod of Dordrecht (1618-1619). With an exam of the tips of Bekker, his rivals and supporters, this publication areas the talk round The global Bewitched in the context of the Cartesian debates of the 17th century and the expansion of confessionalism in the Dutch Reformed church.
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It was not Coccejus himself but his Leiden theology colleague Johannes Hoombeek (1617 -1660) who opened the Lei den phase of the sabbath controversy. A disciple of Voetius who was greatly pained by sabbath profanation, Hoombeek published Van des Heeren Dags-heyliginge (Concerning the Veneration of the Lord's Day) in 1655. In this work he argued that the Lord's Day was based on God's word, making it clear that his views closely followed those of Voetius and other advocates of a strict view of the sabbath.
The synod took no action, however, because of the traumatic invasion of The Netherlands by the French armies of Louis XIV that threw the entire country into a panic and brought down the government of Grand Pensionary Jan de Witt. During the crisis, Bekker chaired a gathering of Friesian preachers who met in Leeuwarden and gave advice to the States. His role in the war crisis was later to be of great help to Bekker in Friesland because of the contacts that he made in court and government. Bekker was also chosen by his colleagues in the Friesian church to be their observer at the Synod of Overijssel in 1672, which was never held because of the war.
A founder of the Nadere Reformatie, Teellinck believed that, along with a reform of doctrine and polity, a reform of church life was badly needed. Daily life had to be governed by the ethic of the Bible, and he favored rigid obedience to divine law as a means to the higher end of both temporal and eternal happiness. He favored scrupulous observance of Sunday and worked hard toward this end. , 35-42. , 42-50. BEKKER, THE SABBATH, AND DUTCH REFORMED CONFESSIONALISM 25 on the sabbath. Teellinck's pastoral colleague in Middelburg, the famous theologian and leader of orthodoxy Franciscus Gomarus, also adopted a position on the sabbath that was less strict than that of Teellinck, indicating that Puritan ideas on the sabbath had taken the Reformed church establishment somewhat by surprise.