Fluid Catalytic Cracking. Role in Modern Refining by Mario L. Occelli
By Mario L. Occelli
content material: fresh developments in fluid catalytic cracking know-how / Mario L. Occelli --
Tetrahedral and octahedral extraframework aluminum in ultrastable Y zeolites : implications within the cracking of gasoline oil / A. Corma, V. Fornés, A. Martínez, and J. Sanz --
Hydrocarbon cracking selectivities with dual-function zeolite catalysts / ok. Rajagopalan and G.W. younger --
Zeolite Beta : constitution, job, and selectivity for catalytic cracking / A. Corma, V. Fornés, F. Melo, and J. Pérez-Pariente --
Zeolite ZSM-5 in fluid catalytic cracking : functionality, advantages, and purposes / P.H. Schipper, F.G. Dwyer, P.T. Sparrell, S. Mizrahi, and J.A. Herbst --
Mechanisms of product yield and selectivity keep an eye on with octane catalysts / John S. Magee and James W. Moore --
thoughts for catalytic octane enhancement in a fluid catalytic cracking unit / G.C. Edwards, okay. Rajagopalan, A.W. Peters, G.W. younger, and J.E. Creighton --
Catalytic regulate of SOx emissions from fluid catalytic cracking devices / E.H. Hirschberg and R.J. Bertolacini --
Use of catalysts to lessen SOx emissions from fluid catalytic cracking devices / L. Rheaume and R.E. Ritter --
Cracking metal-contaminated oils with catalysts containing steel scavengers : results of sepiolite addition on vanadium passivation / Mario L. Occelli --
results of Ni and V in catalysts on contaminant coke and hydrogen yields / Paul F. Schubert and Carol A. Altomare --
Characterization of dual-function cracking catalyst combos : results of sepiolite addition on steel passivation / Mario L. Occelli and J.M. Stencel --
X-ray absorption examine of vanadium in fluid cracking catalysts / G.L. Woolery, A.A. Chin, G.W. Kirker, and A. Huss, Jr. --
tactics for demetalization of fluid cracking catalysts / F.J. Elvin, J.-E. Otterstedt, and J. Sterte --
impact of practise stipulations at the catalytic homes of Al-pillared montmorillonites / D. Tichit, F. Fajula, F. Figueras, C. Gueguen, and J. Bosquet --
influence of getting older of pillaring reagent at the microstructure and cracking task of pillared clay / J.R. Harris --
Catalytic cracking of heavy oils / J.-E. Otterstedt, B. Gevert, and J. Sterte --
Catalytic cracking of a Wilmington vacuum gasoline oil and chosen hydrotreated items / Jan W. Wells --
improvement of a discounted crude cracking catalyst / William P. Hettinger, Jr.
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Extra resources for Fluid Catalytic Cracking. Role in Modern Refining
When the framework aluminum decreases and t h e number o f defects i n c r e a s e s , t h e r a d i c a l mechanism becomes o p e r a t i v e and e v e n t u a l l y dominant wh«n p r a c t i c a l l y no aluminum i s p r e s e n t i n _^he zeolite framework and s u p e r a c i d B r o n s t e d s i t e s ( a t ~ 3610 cm" ) a r e n o t present. In h e a v i l y steam-dealuminated z e o l i t e s , most o f t h e a c t i v i t y s h o u l d come from t h e EFAL t h a t i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e ( 3 , 4 ) .
With further dealumination the s e l e c t i v i t y to and products increases again. The f o r m a t i o n o f methane and ethane c a n be e x p l a i n e d by t h e p r o t o l y t i c c r a c k i n g o f an a l k a n e (15) ( s p e c i a l l y branched a l k a n e s ) on v e r y s t r o n g B r o n s t e d s i t e s . However, i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n by a c i d c a t a l y s i s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f e t h y l e n e , because t h i s would i n v o l v e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p r i m a r y carbenium i o n s .
G . B . L u n d q u i s t f o r t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l work. We a l s o acknowledge h e l p f u l d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h D r . A . W. P e t e r s and M r . J . E . C r e i g h t o n . Literature Cited 1. Venuto, P. , Ε. T. : New York, 1979. 2. Rosinski, E. ; Plank, C. ; Schwartz, A. B. S. Patent 3 758 403, 1973. 3. Anderson, C. ; Dwyer, F. ; Koch, G; Niiranen, P. Proc. Ninth Iberoamerican Symposium on Catalysis, Lisbon, 1984. 4. Dwyer, F. ; Schipper, P. ; Gorra, F. NPRA Annual Meeting, AM 87-63, San Antonio, March, 1987.