From Writing to Computers by Julian Warner

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By Julian Warner

We don't have to glance a ways for symptoms of divided cognizance with reference to books and pcs. for example, the uk information security Act 1984 gave British matters a few rights of entry to computer-held info on themselves yet to not paper documents. From Writing to pcs takes as its vital topic the problem of a unifying highbrow precept to attach books and desktops. Julian Warner makes use of an strategy in line with semiotics, and likewise attracts on linguistics, details technology, cognitive technological know-how, philosophy and automata reviews. overlaying more than a few issues from the kin among speech and writing, to transitions from orality to literacy and claims for a transition to a data society, the writer goals all through to render advanced principles intelligible with no lack of rigour. From Writing to pcs addresses traditional readers who, as social beings and participants of political groups, are laid low with, and implicated, in major advancements in tools for storing, manipulating and speaking info. it's also meant for college kids of the disciplines on which the e-book attracts: semiotics, details experiences, linguistics, computing device technology, philosophy and psychology.

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Acceptable word-order, and the construction of sequences, are different. There are lexical differences between spoken and written languages, in extent of vocabulary, with some written words rarely spoken and some spoken sequences rarely recorded. Distinctions between lexical items can be made in written language or in speech which are not necessarily registered in the other medium. Pauses in speech do not correspond to written boundaries, such as spaces between words or punctuation marks. Some genres of written language, particularly information systems such as lists, catalogues and indexes, use graphic elements to make distinctions that are more difficult to obtain with similar clarity in speech.

A change of item, for instance a shift in the relation between a sound-pattern and a meaning, would have repercussions throughout the entire system. Everything was internal to the system of a language whose change would alter the system in any respect. Writing was not internal to this system but gave ‘tangible form’ to speech (Saussure 1916:15, 23–31, 113). Edward Sapir, in Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech, regarded written language as a point-to-point equivalent to its spoken counterpart and echoed Aristotle: ‘written forms are secondary symbols of the spoken ones—symbols of symbols’ (Sapir 1921:20).

Two examples of binary codes, the one aural and the other graphic, will help illustrate this. The Congo talking drum is reported to have used a binary contrast for the transmission of messages over space: The Dualla are in possession of an interesting code, in accordance with which messages can be sent and even conversations maintained by means of drums, or rather gongs, giving two notes’ (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1910). From other accounts it appears that African drums were used for two types of communication: for direct transmission of language by tones which are taken as representing utterances in highly tonal languages; and for codes where pre-arranged signals represent a given message (Finnegan 1970:481–99).

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