Greece and the Augustan Cultural Revolution by A. J. S. Spawforth
By A. J. S. Spawforth
This e-book examines the effect of the Roman cultural revolution lower than Augustus at the Roman province of Greece. It argues that the transformation of Roman Greece right into a classicizing 'museum' was once a particular reaction of the provincial Greek elites to the cultural politics of the Roman imperial monarchy. opposed to a historical past of Roman debates approximately Greek tradition and Roman decadence, Augustus promoted the appropriate of a Roman debt to a 'classical' Greece rooted in Europe and morally against a stereotyped Asia. In Greece the regime signalled its admiration for Athens, Sparta, Olympia and Plataea as symbols of those previous Greek glories. Cued via the Augustan monarchy, provincial-Greek notables expressed their Roman orientation via aggressive cultural paintings (revival of formality; recovery of constructions) aimed toward extra emphasising Greece's 'classical' legacy. Reprised through Hadrian, the Augustan building of 'classical' Greece helped to advertise the archaism typifying Greek tradition lower than the principate.
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To my knowledge there is no direct evidence showing that any eastern notable behaved in this way, although, as noted below, there is ancient evidence in the other direction. Lysiades: Cic. Phil. 5. 13–14. Ramsey 2005: 27–8. Antipater: Byrne 2003a: Vipsanius nos. 4 and 12. RP 2 LAC 461 and 456; see below, chs. 2–3. Greek provincial elites 43 r Argos: M. Antonius Aristocrates181 r Elis: M. Antonius Pisanus; Ti. Claudius Apollonius182 r Mantinea: the hypothetical common ancestor of Iulia Eudia and her husband C.
Petrochilos 1974: 35–7 citing Val. Max. 2. Note Bloomer 1997: esp. 209, 214 on the concerns of the elder Seneca to promote a ‘virile’ declamatory style distanced from Greek practice. Augustan classicism 23 to him, the young Antony was taught ‘the Asianic style’ (Asianos z¯elos) as a student in Greece, where this style of oratory was ‘flourishing’ at the time, around 58 bc. 98 What is novel is his transposition of these categories, recently minted by Romans in debates about Latin oratory, to a discussion of Greek oratory.
See Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2–3 for the Roman scrutiny of private lives, which Dionysius contrasts with ancient Athens and Sparta, where the citizen was left to his own devices in private. Plut. Sull. 4. Val. Max. 2 ext. 3 (80,000). Kirbihler 2007: 22 suggests a figure of 100,000– 150,000 for the total Italian population in Asia Minor and the East Greek islands on the eve of the massacres, including women, children and freedmen. Errington 1988. Cic. Ad Q. fr. 19. Cicero seems to be imputing ex-slave status to this generic bearer of a nomen well documented among the eastern negotiatores: Spawforth 1996: 180 no.