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IEA Technology Roadmap: Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating by OECD IEA

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Extra resources for IEA Technology Roadmap: Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment

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ZzFuel cells: The R&D priorities are to reduce costs and improve durability and operational lifetimes. Better fuel-cell system design, new high-temperature materials and an improved understanding of component degradation and failure could considerably enhance the durability of fuel cells. Fuel cells and their balance of plant will need to have an operating life of 40 000 to 80 000 hours to be competitive in buildings; current designs are expected to meet the lower end of this range, but further progress is needed.

Similarly, it is important that energy is priced at full cost for all consumers, so that price incentives are as strong as possible and that all billing is based on metered consumption where practical. An important policy opportunity exists in public procurement policy. Governments can lead the way by ensuring policies are in place to mandate or incentivise the public procurement of efficient and low/zero-carbon heating and cooling technologies. Technology Roadmaps Energy-efficient buildings: heating and cooling equipment The higher capital costs of many energy-efficient and low/zero-carbon heating and cooling technologies and other bariers means that clear, long-term, effective, efficient and predictable deployment incentives are required to help transform the market to the point where support policies are no longer needed.

Options include schemes where consumers are not required to pay the additional first-cost premium, which is recovered over time through utility bills, or other energy service contracting models. 41. T ������������������������������������������������������������������ his system is used in France with the purchase of new vehicles. Those under a certain emissions limit receive a cash bonus, while those over the limit must pay a penalty. This can theoretically be scaled to be self-funding, but experience has shown this to be challenging.

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