Introduction to Cryptography with Maple by José Luis Gómez Pardo
By José Luis Gómez Pardo
This creation to cryptography employs a programming-oriented method of examine an important cryptographic schemes in present use and the most cryptanalytic assaults opposed to them. dialogue of the theoretical elements, emphasizing specific safety definitions in keeping with methodological instruments akin to complexity and randomness, and of the mathematical features, with emphasis on number-theoretic algorithms and their functions to cryptography and cryptanalysis, is built-in with the programming strategy, hence supplying implementations of the algorithms and schemes in addition to examples of lifelike measurement.
A virtue of the author's method is using Maple as a programming setting during which not only the cryptographic primitives but additionally an important cryptographic schemes are carried out following the techniques of criteria our bodies equivalent to NIST, with the various identified cryptanalytic assaults carried out to boot. the aim of the Maple implementations is to allow the reader scan and examine, and therefore the writer contains various examples. The publication discusses vital fresh matters equivalent to homomorphic encryption, identity-based cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography. The algorithms and schemes that are handled intimately and carried out in Maple contain AES and modes of operation, CMAC, GCM/GMAC, SHA-256, HMAC, RSA, Rabin, Elgamal, Paillier, Cocks IBE, DSA and ECDSA. additionally, a few lately brought schemes having fun with powerful protection houses, reminiscent of RSA-OAEP, Rabin-SAEP, Cramer--Shoup, and PSS, also are mentioned and carried out. at the cryptanalysis part, Maple implementations and examples are used to debate many vital algorithms, together with birthday and man-in-the-middle assaults, integer factorization algorithms reminiscent of Pollard's rho and the quadratic sieve, and discrete log algorithms similar to baby-step giant-step, Pollard's rho, Pohlig--Hellman and the index calculus method.
This textbook is acceptable for complicated undergraduate and graduate scholars of laptop technology, engineering and arithmetic, pleasurable the necessities of varied kinds of classes: a uncomplicated introductory path; a theoretically orientated direction whose concentration is at the specified definition of safety thoughts and on cryptographic schemes with reductionist safeguard proofs; a practice-oriented direction requiring little mathematical historical past and with an emphasis on functions; or a mathematically complex path addressed to scholars with a much better mathematical historical past. the most prerequisite is a easy wisdom of linear algebra and hassle-free calculus, and whereas a few wisdom of chance and summary algebra will be precious, it's not crucial as the booklet contains the required heritage from those matters and, in addition, explores the number-theoretic fabric intimately. The e-book is additionally a entire reference and is acceptable for self-study by way of practitioners and programmers.
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3; for now we can informally think of pseudo-random as something that, while possibly being non-random, looks random to a computationally bounded adversary. 3 Pseudo-random number generators should always be initialized—or seeded—before using them because, otherwise, the sequence of generated values will always be the same. 2 Substitution Ciphers 9 > SubstitutionDec(k, c); "sellthesharesbeforetomorrow" The Caesar cipher is a particular case of the substitution cipher. 25]): SCaesar := (key, message) -> CharacterMap(alphabet, Permute(alphabet, sshift(key)), message): SCaesar(19, "thedieiscast"); "maxwbxblvtlm" SCaesar(-19, %); "thedieiscast" (the symbol % is the ‘ditto operator’ in Maple and takes the value of the previous output).
K = Sn (where Sn denotes, as usual, the set of permutations of a set of n letters which we may identify with Σ). • For each σ ∈ Sn , Encσ := σ , Decσ := σ −1 . 8 1 Classical Ciphers and Their Cryptanalysis Let us now use Maple to implement this cipher. We will use the lower case English alphabet as before. We will again use Maple’s package StringTools to manipulate strings, so we start with: > with(StringTools): alphabet := convert([$97 .. 2 A key will be a permutation of Z26 given as a list.
The amount of work is increased by a factor of n when one passes from n − 1 to n letters and hence the mere addition of one letter to the English alphabet (as would happen, for example, if one uses the Spanish alphabet which contains the additional character ñ) would multiply the required time by a factor of 27. Although a general substitution cipher cannot be currently broken by a brute-force attack, it would be very naive to conclude that this makes these ciphers secure. The fact that it appears to be so to the layman has been exploited many times in the literature.