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Land, Labour and Entrustment: West African Female Farmers by Pamela Kea

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By Pamela Kea

Varied contractual preparations and kinds of alternate confirmed among smallholder farmers, their families and group paintings teams, are very important to our realizing of approaches of agrarian transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa. even though, little has been written during this zone. demanding portrayals of West African woman farmers as a homogenous team, the current learn offers an ethnographic account of the contractual family members verified among woman hosts and migrants, within the alternate of land and labour for agrarian creation in a Gambian neighborhood. extra, it demonstrates the best way, regardless of the liberalization of the economic system, neighborhood cultural practices, resembling that of entrustment, stay of value in affecting the character and specific personality of agrarian transformation and postcolonial capitalist improvement.

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On a third level, I make reference throughout the book to diverse regional, theoretical, ethnographic and historical literature as and when it informs and helps to develop the analysis. Further, an historical approach is central to the research, in terms of: the documentation of the founding of Brikama: and the provision of a partial account of changing political and cultural economies in The Gambia. 28 Their representational practices are produced, interpreted and given meaning both by the narrator and the audience.

Varied trading opportunities allowed the Mandinka to spread throughout West Africa and to establish Mandinka as the language of commerce (Faal 1991, 10; Quinn 1972, 7). Farmers in the region have grown and marketed a variety of crops since the fourteenth century, if not earlier (Carney and Watts 1991, 654). Prior to the arrival of European travelers and traders, farmers 1 Kombo Central, Kombo East, Kombo St. Mary, Kombo North and Kombo South are five of the thirty-six districts in the country. They are located in the Western part of the country and make up the region, which is referred to as ‘the Kombos’.

It was also not uncommon for Islamic brotherhoods to make use of the labour of their disciples in the cultivation of groundnuts, as was the case in the 1840s amongst the Mouride Brotherhood of Casamance, South Senegal (Robertson 1988, 210). Prior to the emergence of this new labour regime, the organisation of labour was based on kinship, client ship, slave labour and communal work groups. There are three main ‘caste’ groups within Mandinka social organisation: forolu (freeborn), jongolu (slaves, or persons of slave descent), and nyamalo (crafts people).

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