## Mathemagic: Magic, Puzzles and Games with Numbers by royal vale heath

By royal vale heath

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To multiply three digits by two digits: To square any two digit number ending in 5 : Merely add 1 to the lower first digit and use the result to multiply the upper first digit. Annex a 25 (5 X 5 = 25). For example: 45 45 add 1 to 4 = 5 5 X 4 = 20 Annex 25, and we get 2025 35 35 add 1 to 3 = 4 = 12 Annex 25, and we get 1225 4 X 3 43 EASY WAYS TO MULTIPLY = = -------------------- To multiply two digits by two digits when the first digit is the same in both numbers and the sum of the last digits equals 10: Merely multiply the last two digits, put the result down, add 1 to one of the first digits and multiply it by the other digit.

He learned how to add numbers, but never discovered how fractions were worked. He boasts that he can multiply or divide any number at all-by 2-but unfortunately he can't multiply or divide by any other number. Offhand, you'd think this would be a serious handicap. It would be to anyone but Elmer. I might add that Elmer also hates all even numbers. Whenever he sees them, he crosses them out. Recently, he ran head-on into a simple multiplication problem. Knowing Elmer's very limited knowledge of arithmetic, I felt sorry for him.

It. lumD. of 9. aDd die Iir. aDd la• • 1_1 add up to t. 777777 ,. 7 1( /III /I 88a888 .. 2857)(:3 .. '117 + 9 142857)( Z : 2. 8 5 7 I If X 7 .. ~+ 9 1112857 c 8 s 7 I 4 2 X 7 = S17117"1-f- 9 1/1-2857 x~,. -'1 xc. -+-" TIle DUlDber 142157, wbeD multiplied by I, S. ame ... qaeace of dicit. , OOIUlDD add up to %7ju. e a. tb. •• rie Dumber 76923. All dialODal. ame DUID· 111111 = 3 33333 .. 17037 3703 7 370 $7 Jl37037 ~~¥II'I-:12 X SSSSSS =15 X ben. 35 37037 37(137 NUMBER SYMPHONIES 1089 AND ALL THAT A 1089 x 1 " N B t t~' 9801 = x 2 )( 3 8712 = 76>23 {,53'/- " ~-31:::--__ " 5'P1S u II II " :: 980/ NOTE The lst column in A increases from top to bottom consecutively.