Morphogenesis: Origins of Patterns and Shapes (Springer by Paul Bourgine, Annick Lesne
By Paul Bourgine, Annick Lesne
What are the family members among the form of a method of towns and that of fish college? Which occasions should still take place in a telephone so that it participates to 1 of the finger of our fingers? tips to interpret the form of a sand dune? This collective ebook written for the non-specialist addresses those questions and extra in general, the basic factor of the emergence of types and styles in actual and dwelling platforms. it's a unmarried publication amassing the various facets of morphogenesis and ways built in numerous disciplines on form and trend formation. hoping on the seminal works of D’Arcy Thompson, Alan Turing and René Thom, it confronts significant examples like plant progress and form, intra-cellular association, evolution of dwelling varieties or motifs generated via crystals. A booklet necessary to comprehend common ideas at paintings within the shapes and styles surrounding us but additionally to prevent spurious analogies.
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1 Examples of morphologies in physical systems. Images: courtesy of P. Molho (magnetic garnets), V. Jeudy (superconductors), G. L. Kellogg (Pb atoms on Cu surfaces), H. Jaeger (diblock copolymers) and S. -C. Bacri and F. Elias (of the order of between a few degrees Kelvin and a few tens of degrees Kelvin). For a type I superconductor, the phase transition between the normal phase (for T > Tc ) and the superconducting phase (for T < Tc ) is of the first order, meaning that there is a range of temperatures below Tc in which domains of superconducting phase coexist with domains of normal phase.
Rev. 83, 509–532. 4. M. (1977) Fractals: form, chance and dimension, Freeman (San Franscisco). 5. M. (1982) The fractal geometry of Nature, Freeman (San Franscisco). 6. Maturana H. J. (1987) The tree of knowledge, Shambhala (Boston). 7. Maynard Smith J. (1998) Shaping life, Weidenfeld & Nicholson (London). 8. Monod J. (1972) Chance and necessity, Vintage Books (New York). 9. Nicolis G. and Prigogine I. (1977) Self-organization in nonequilibrium systems: from dissipative structures to order through fluctuations, Wiley-Interscience (London).
4 Diblock Copolymers Soft matter physics also contains many cases of self-organisation in equilibrium. One example is that of diblock copolymers. These are made up of two antagonistic blocks, for example one hydrophobic and the other hydrophilic, joined by a chemical bond. These polymers tend to self-assemble to form a structure aggregating all the blocks with the same affinity, and we can observe the spontaneous appearance of structures whose characteristic thickness is the length of one polymer, about ten nanometres.