Optik, Licht und Laser by Dieter Meschede

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By Dieter Meschede

Diese Einführung stellt die Konzepte der klassischen Optik für Physiker, andere Naturwissenschaftler und Ingenieure vor. Sie behandelt die Eigenschaften von Laser-Lichtquellen im element und schreitet bis zu optischen Detektoren und der nichtlinearen Optik voran. Ebenso beleuchtet wird die Verknüpfung traditioneller Themen mit ausgewählten Fällen moderner Forschungsarbeiten, um Begeisterung für neuere wissenschaftliche und technische Herausforderungen der Optik zu wecken.

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P. Fresnel (1788-1827) aus Frankreich eine sehr erfolgreiche Wellentheorie, die alle damals bekannten Phänomene der Interferenz beschreiben konnte. Nachdem G. Kirchhoff (1824-1887) dem Huyghensschen Prinzip eine mathematische Formulierung gegeben hatte, kam der endgültige Durchbruch mit den berühmten Maxwellschen Gleichungen, die auch hier als systematische Grundlage der Wellentheorie des Lichtes dienen sollen. C. Maxwell (18311879) hat entscheidende Einflüsse nicht nur auf die Physik, sondern überhaupt auf die Wissenschaft und Technik des 20.

4 näher behandeln werden. Der Wellenvektor definiert durch k· r = const Ebenen mit identischer Phase = wt - kr (Abb. 4) . (a) (b) (c) (d) Abb. 4 Momentaufnahme wichtiger Wellentypen: (a) die isotrope (skalare) Kugelwelle hat eine einfache Struktur; sie kann elektromagnetische Wellen, die immer Vektorfelder sind, jedoch nicht korrekt beschreiben; (b) Ebene Welle mit Wellenvektor; (c) die Dipolwelle entspricht einer Kugelwelle mit anisotroper Intensitätsverteilung; (d) schon im Abstand von wenigen Wellenlängen von der Quelle wird die Dipolwelle der ebenen Welle sehr ähnlich.

Das AßeD-Gesetz für Gaußmoden Die Nützlichkeit der Gaußmoden bei der Analyse eines optischen Strahlengangs wird besonders durch eine einfache Erweiterung des aus der Strahlenoptik bekannten ABCD-Gesetzes (Kap. 2) gefördert. 22) vollständig charakterisiert werden. 16) linear transformiert werden, und daß für jedes optische Element ein bestimmter Typ einer Matrix T mit den Elementen ABC D existiert. 3 Gauß-Strahlen 53 +D BI + B + 2 1 A +B 1 + D C lQO 2C +D 2 A Q2=T 2 0(T 1 0Qo)= A A AlqO Y 2fvlqO lQO 1 Wir können also die Wirkung sämtlicher Elemente wieder durch die schon bekannten Matrizen aus Tab.

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