Consciousness Thought

Philosophy In The Flesh: The Embodied Mind And Its Challenge by George Lakoff

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By George Lakoff

What are humans like? How is wisdom attainable? what's fact? the place do ethical values come from? Questions like those have stood on the heart of Western philosophy for hundreds of years. In addressing them, philosophers have made yes primary assumptions—that we will be able to understand our personal minds by way of introspection, that almost all of our brooding about the area is literal, and that cause is disembodied and universal—that are actually known as into query by way of well-established result of cognitive technology. it's been proven empirically that:Most inspiration is subconscious. we haven't any direct wide awake entry to the mechanisms of idea and language. Our rules move via too speedy and at too deep a degree for us to monitor them in any uncomplicated way.Abstract thoughts are as a rule metaphorical. a lot of the subject material of philosopy, equivalent to the character of time, morality, causation, the brain, and the self, is based seriously on simple metaphors derived from physically event. what's literal in our reasoning approximately such strategies is minimum and conceptually impoverished. all of the richness comes from metaphor. for example, we now have collectively incompatible metaphors for time, either one of which signify it as move via area: in a single it's a move previous us and within the different a spatial size we flow along.Mind is embodied. inspiration calls for a body—not within the trivial experience that you simply want a actual mind to imagine with, yet within the profound feel that the very constitution of our options comes from the character of the physique. the majority of our subconscious metaphors are in response to universal physically experiences.Most of the vital subject matters of the Western philosophical culture are referred to as into query through those findings. The Cartesian individual, with a brain absolutely become independent from the physique, doesn't exist. The Kantian individual, in a position to ethical motion in keeping with the dictates of a common cause, doesn't exist. The phenomenological individual, able to figuring out his or her brain fullyyt via introspection by myself, doesn't exist. The utilitarian individual, the Chomskian individual, the poststructuralist individual, the computational individual, and the individual outlined by way of analytic philosopy all don't exist.Then what does?Lakoff and Johnson exhibit philosopy liable to the technology of brain bargains extensively new and unique understandings of what someone is. After first describing the philosophical stance that needs to keep on with from taking cognitive technological know-how heavily, they reassess the elemental ideas of the brain, time, causation, morality, and the self: then they reconsider a bunch of philosophical traditions, from the classical Greeks via Kantian morality via smooth analytic philosopy. They display the metaphorical constitution underlying every one mode of suggestion and convey how the metaphysics of every idea flows from its metaphors. ultimately, they tackle significant problems with twentieth-century philosopy: how we conceive rationality, and the way we conceive language.Philosopy within the Flesh unearths a significantly new knowing of what it ability to be human and demands an intensive rethinking of the Western philosophical culture. this can be philosopy because it hasn't ever been obvious before.

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Extra resources for Philosophy In The Flesh: The Embodied Mind And Its Challenge To Western Thought

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At the heart of this worldview are tenets 4, 5, and 6-that human reason and human concepts are mind-, brain-, and body-free and characterize objective, external reality. If these tenets are false, the whole worldview collapses. Suppose human concepts and human reason are body- and brain-dependent. Suppose they are shaped as much by the body and brain as by reality. Then the body and brain are essential to our humanity. Moreover, our notion of what reality is changes. There is no reason whatever to believe that there is a disembodied reason or that the world comes neatly carved up into categories or that the categories of our mind are the categories of the world.

Suppose human concepts and human reason are body- and brain-dependent. Suppose they are shaped as much by the body and brain as by reality. Then the body and brain are essential to our humanity. Moreover, our notion of what reality is changes. There is no reason whatever to believe that there is a disembodied reason or that the world comes neatly carved up into categories or that the categories of our mind are the categories of the world. If tenets 4, 5, and 6 are empirically incorrect, then we have a lot of rethinking to do about who we are and what our place is in the universe.

Since colors are not things or substances in the world, metaphysical realism fails. The meaning of the word red cannot be just the relation between the word and something in the world (say, a collection of wavelengths of light or a surface reflectance). An adequate theory of the conceptual structure of red, including an account of why it has the structure it has (with focal red, purplish red, orangish red, and so on) cannot be constructed solely from the spectral properties of surfaces. It must make reference to color cones and neural circuitry.

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