Professional programmer's guide to Fortran 77 by Page C
By Page C
This consultant presents a complete description of the positive aspects and implementation of Fortran seventy seven. perfect as a textual content from which to benefit a moment language, or as a reference consultant to a primary or major language.
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Additional info for Professional programmer's guide to Fortran 77
Within the quoted string any characters available in the character set of the machine are permitted; the blank (or space) character is significant within character constants and counts as a single character just like any other. Examples of valid character constants are: ’X’ ’$40 + 15%’ ’This is a constant including spaces’ 5 36 CONSTANTS, VARIABLES, AND ARRAYS The apostrophe character can be included in a character constant by representing it as two successive apostrophes (with no intervening blanks).
Many systems provide, as an extension, intrinsic functions to perform bit-wise operations on integers. The function names vary: typically they are IAND, IOR, ISHIFT. AND. OR. to be used with integer arguments: this is a much more radical extension and much less satisfactory, not only because it reduces portability, but also reduces the ability of the compiler to detect errors in normal arithmetic expressions. Many systems also provide format descriptors to transfer integers using octal and hexadecimal number bases: these are also non-standard.
The integer conversion of INT rounds towards zero; if you need to round to the nearest integer use the NINT function (described below). The CMPLX function produces a value with a zero imaginary component unless it is used with two arguments (or one which is already complex). It is important to 6 ARITHMETIC 49 realise that many conversions lose information: in particular a double precision value is likely to lose significant digits if converted to any other data type. Minimum and Maximum The MIN and MAX functions are unique in being able to take any number of arguments from two upwards; the result has the same data type as the arguments.