Pt Platinum: Supplement Volume A 1 Technology of by G. J. Bernfeld, A. J. Bird, R. I. Edwards, Hartmut Köpf,
By G. J. Bernfeld, A. J. Bird, R. I. Edwards, Hartmut Köpf, Petra Köpf-Maier, Christoph J. Raub, W. A. M. te Riele, Franz Simon, Walter Westwood (auth.), Gary J. K. Acres, Kurt Swars (eds.)
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Extra resources for Pt Platinum: Supplement Volume A 1 Technology of Platinum-Group Metals
Ezerskaya, I. V. Prokof'eva, N. V. Fedorenko, V. I. Shlenskaya, N. K. Bel'ski i (Analytical Chemistry of Platinum Metals, Wiley, New York 1975, p. -  J . R. Moody, E. S. Beary (Talanta 29 1003/10). Palladium High purity palladium powder can be produced from normal production powder which is dissolved in hydrochloric acid plus chlorine and evaporated to low volume to remove excess acid or from the chloropalladous acid obtained during the refining operations. Reaction of chloropalladous acid, H2PdCI4, with ammonia precipitates the pink salt [Pd(NH3)4llPdCI4] which is insoluble in water and on heating with excess ammonia it redissolves to give very soluble [Pd(NH3)4]CI 2 .
Chem. 300  280/5. L. R. P. Reavil, P. Charlesworth, The Application of Solvent Extraction to Platinum Group Metal Prefining; Intern . Solvent Extr. Conf . , 1980, Vol. 3, pp. 80/93. , 1980. Gmelin Handbook Pt Suppl. Vol. A 1 23 M. J. Clear, P. Charlesworth, D. J. Bryson, Solvent Extraction in Platinum Group Metal Processing; J. Chem . Technol. Biotechnol. 29  210/24. Y. I. Ivashentsev, A. I. Ryumin, L. I. Savel'eva, G. A. Sorkinova, Separation of Precious Metals from Complex Material by High Temperature Chlorination, Tsvetn .
The "ruthenium chloride" solution is heated w ith sod ium chlorate to produce volatile ruthenium tetroxide wh ich is distilled and carried over with chlorine into dilute hydrochloric acid to form " chloro ruthenic acid" which is then converted into ammonium "chlororut henate" by ammonium chloride [2, 3]. The ammonium "chlororuthenate" is then heated in air to convert it to the oxide and reduced with hydrogen to give ruthenium powder. As an alternative procedure, if the ruthenium powder produced by the normal refining process is spectrogaphically free from other platinum-group metals the silicon, iron and other base metals can be removed by treatment with hydrofluoric acid and hydrochloric acid .