Reinforced Earth by T. Ingold
By T. Ingold
This booklet describes how bolstered earth works and the way it really is used, and experiences the study and improvement of strengthened earth partitions
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It was found that the addition of straw actually decreased compressive strength, the strength being halved by the addition of 2\% by weight of straw. In an outstanding exposition Gray (1978) considered the role of woody vegetation in reinforcing soils and stabilizing slopes. Of par ticular interest are results of 250 mm dia. direct shear tests carried out on reinforced and unreinforced dune sand (Fig. 20). The rein28 MECHANISMS A N D CONCEPTS forcement used was broom straw fibre with one sample reinforced with 20 mm long fibres and the other with 40 mm long fibres.
Show that whilst principal tensile strain directions are substantially horizontal in the main body of an embankment they tend to fan out about the toe of the embankment in the embankment foundation (Fig. 33a). As a corollary to this, potential failure surfaces also exhibit hori zontal sections in the embankment foundation (Fig. 33b) where the blind application of continuous horizontal reinforcement could well induce failure. This is not the case for vertical walls: Bassett & Last (loc. ) confirmed theoretically that a horizontal distri bution of reinforcement should be employed.
Analytical studies of Reinforced Earth walls published by Schlosser and Vidal (1969) stated that design considerations fall into two main categories, namely internal and external stability. The problem of internal stability was associated with the reinforced mass proper, in which instability could be invoked either by tensile failure of the reinforcement or bond failure of the reinforcement. The latter mode of failure was not analysed at this stage; it was simply stated that the length of the reinforcement should be 80% of the wall height.