Safety in Tritium Handling Technology by H. Dworschak (auth.), F. Mannone (eds.)
By H. Dworschak (auth.), F. Mannone (eds.)
The use of tritium as a simple gas fabric in a thermonuclear fusion reactor increases specific questions of safety as a result of mixed results of its physico chemical homes and radioactive nature. in addition the opportunity of reaching extra major progresses in constructing and demonstrating the feasibility of tritium burning units is determined by the dealing with of tritium macroquantities, say ten grammes, in a secure and trustworthy demeanour. it's also undoubted that, except technological constraints, any validation and exploitation of thermonuclear fusion as a resource of power could be strongly conditioned by way of the applying of stringent operational and environmental protection standards because it derives from norms of the trendy laws and public attractiveness issues. whether the secure dealing with of tritium has already been verified to be possible on a whole gas cycle scale, it really is unanimously well-known that extra efforts are nonetheless to be focused on the development of present innovations and improvement of complex applied sciences. many of the parts requiring significant extra efforts are plasma exhaust gas c1ean-up, tritium pellet injection, processing of inert provider gasoline, improvement of enormous free-oil pumps,tritlUm approach analytics, improvement of huge detritiation platforms, beryllium-tritium interplay reports, tritium hold-up reports in getter beds, adsorbers and structural fabrics, tritium restoration from first wall, structural and breeder fabrics for minimizing tritiated waste arising,tritium garage expertise, tritiated waste disposal technolo~y, method for regimen tritium accountancy,etc . . such a lot of them are intrinsically regarding the protection requirement of tritium technology.
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Extra info for Safety in Tritium Handling Technology
T. SHMAYDA Ontario Hydro, Research Division 800 Kipling Avenue Toronto, Ontario, Canada M8Z 5S4 ABSTRACT. Stripping tritium from carrier streams is a fundamental operation of tritium handling. Tritide formers in this application offer the advantage of facile tritium recovery. This paper reviews the equations governing tritium scavenging. Two specific tritide formers, uranium for tritium recovery within process loops and a zirconium-iron alloy for recovery from streams destined to the environment, are discussed in detail.
1,2 However, several disadvantages plague the approach. Typically, the tritium concentration, predominantly HTO, in the glove box atmosphere slowly increases to a steady state value on the order of several tens of mCilm 3. HTO permeation through the gloves can contribute a significant fraction of the operator's overall dose. An air box may not be compatible with the process which it houses. Dryer regeneration results in an HTO product which must be reduced if tritium recovery is planned. Large volumes of low specific activity water are vroduced as a result of most applications if tritium recovery is not planned.
34 S. Physics of Scavenger Beds A stream tube through an alloy within a scavenger bed is illustrated conceptually in Figure 10. L is the distance in the flow direction. F is the flow rate in m3/s. A is the crosssectional area of the stream tube perpendicular to the flow direction in m2. Mass balance across the elemental length ~ z within the alloy requires that = moles of H2 flowing in - moles of H2 flowing out moles of H2 removed in volume A ~z per unit time by the alloy. F Co ~~----------L--------------~~ Figure 10: Streamtube within the Scavenger Bed If c is the hydrogen molar concentration in the feedstream in mol/m 3 and t is time in seconds, then we can express the above relation algebraically as (F c)z - (F c)z+~z =R A ~ z (16) where R is the global rate of hydrogen uptake per m3 of bed.