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Science of swimming faster by Scott Riewald

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1 A typical shoulder roll angle time graph of a skilled swimmer. , right-hand entry), and 100 percent represents the completion of the cycle, in this case the subsequent right-hand entry. 01/497914/alw/r2 breathing side and the nonbreathing side. Further, their arm actions are not changed much by breathing. In contrast, less-skilled swimmers show disruptions to this sinusoidal pattern when they take a breath. During the development of swimming technique, teachers and coaches need to encourage breathing to both sides.

Thus, we have the desirable situation whereby resistance is reduced, stroke rate is reduced, speed is maintained, and, as a consequence, stroke length is increased. Further, the rate of energy expenditure is reduced because the effort supplied by the pulling arm is applied with reduced rate because of the longer cycle time. Another torque that tends to sink the legs is the torque produced by the upward force in reaction to the downward movement of the arm and hand during and after entry. When a swimmer is attempting to cycle the arms quickly, the hand and arm tend to be driven downward rather than stretching forward and holding a level position, as in the case of the catch-up technique.

10). 10). These lag times were then expressed as a percentage of mean duration of a stroke cycle, resulting in IdC1 and IdC2 respectively. 10 shows that the IdC was the mean of these two indices (TL1 + TL2). catch-up, which is lag time between the propulsive phases of two arms (IdC < 0); 2. superposition, described as an overlap of the propulsive phases (IdC > 0). 10 Coordination illustration. 10/497925/alw/r2 the beginning of propulsion of one arm and the end of propulsion of the alternate arm.

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