Shaping and Signaling Presidential Policy: The National by Meena Bose
By Meena Bose
Bose analyzes the management kinds and advisory structures of the 2 presidents, employing Alexander L. George's inspiration of "multiple advocacy," which recommends that presidents systematically assessment a variety of coverage ideas in a based atmosphere with their advisers earlier than you make a decision. Bose unearths that Eisenhower's formal management sort ensured that he tested possible choices completely along with his affiliates prior to making coverage judgements. Kennedy's casual management sort elevated possibilities for entry to the president but additionally overloaded him with element. the improvement of Eisenhower's "New glance" nationwide safety technique illustrates the advantages of a number of advocacy, while the improvement of Kennedy's "Flexible reaction" technique demonstrates the issues with no longer utilising the sort of technique. At a extra basic point, the research unearths that coverage making plans efforts early in an management should be of significant aid to presidents in getting ready their agendas.
Bose additionally unearths that a number of advocacy has very important payoffs for presidential coverage conversation in assisting to make sure that messages don't exhibit unintentional signs. within the sector of nationwide safeguard, the place misperceptions can heighten tensions and exacerbate conflicts with adversaries, it truly is relatively very important that an administration's rhetoric be in step with its policies.
Scholars of the yank presidency and American international coverage will locate Shaping and Signaling Presidential Policy a well-written and punctiliously documented examine of presidential selection making and nationwide protection policy.
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Extra resources for Shaping and Signaling Presidential Policy: The National Security Decision Making of Eisenhower and Kennedy
Eisenhower may have supported containment, but he could not just accept a Democratic administration’s national security strategy. ’”72 Whether Eisenhower actually altered his own thinking as a result of these deliberations is impossible to determine. 73 Furthermore, even if the decision-making process behind the New Look ended up reaƒrming Eisenhower’s already established views, it still served as an important exercise in policy formulation for his advisers. After going through Project Solarium and numerous other debates on national security, they clearly knew Eisenhower’s reasoning behind his chosen policy.
Treasury secretary Humphrey also expressed approval of the plan, as did the civilian consultants. 25 After meeting with the civilian consultants, Eisenhower decided to have the decisions he had reached with his NSC put into writing. On April 8, 27 Developing New Look 1953, the council reviewed NSC 149, a draft policy statement prepared by the Planning Board. S. national security in its very first point: The survival of the free world depends on the maintenance by the United States of a sound, strong economy.
Kennan suggests that Eisenhower had political reasons for ordering a reexamination of containment in Project Solarium. Containment had been “quite clearly formed” in the Truman administration, and partisan loyalties required that Eisenhower subject that strategy to critical review. As Kennan says, “I suspect that the whole purpose, really, of the Solarium exercise was . . ” Eisenhower may have supported containment, but he could not just accept a Democratic administration’s national security strategy.