Systemic Functional Grammar of Spanish: A Contrastive Study by Julia Lavid

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By Julia Lavid

This publication deals a systemic-functional account of Spanish, and analyses how Spanish grammatical types evaluate and distinction with these of English. The authors examine Spanish based on the 3 major 'metafunctions': ideational, interpersonal, and textual. the result's a finished exam of Spanish grammar from the clause upwards. Presupposing very little wisdom of Spanish, this booklet can be of curiosity to researchers in Spanish language, systemic useful linguistics or contrastive linguistics.

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Parataxis and expansion: enhancement: causal-conditional: cause: reason: cause ^ effect (101) y la disciplina es la disciplina, así que prepárese para irse con toda la gente ‘and discipline is discipline, so get ready to leave with everybody’ (102) Lo que pasa es que no tenemos la resolución, por lo que no sabemos de qué se está hablando ‘What happens is that we don’t have the resolution, and so we don’t know what they’re talking about’ Parataxis and expansion: enhancement: causal-conditional: cause: reason: effect ^ cause (103) Mucha gente cree que no tiene sentido votar pues ya se sabe quién va a ganar ‘Many people think it makes no sense to vote for it is already known who’s going to win’ (104) La fotografía de reportaje ha muerto porque ya no queda nada por fotografiar ‘Feature photography is dead because there is nothing left to photograph’ 42 Systemic Functional Grammar of Spanish Paratactic resultative enhancement is semantically very close to cause: reason: cause ^ effect.

Note, however, that, unlike in (73, 74) above, in (89) there is no replacement involved but rather the idea of exception that characterizes subtraction: no se puede hacer nada excepto esperar (‘one can do nothing except wait’). Hypotaxis and expansion: extension: variation: replacement; secondary clause non-finite (86) se dieron cuenta de que, en vez de conformarse con las migajas, ellos podían comerse el pastel completo sin darle ni una tajada al rey ‘they realized that, instead of contenting themselves with the crumbs, they could eat the whole pie without giving the king a single slice’ Hypotaxis and expansion: extension: variation: subtraction; secondary clause finite (87) De sus costumbres no es mucho lo que se sabe, a excepción de que se mueve en bandadas en ambientes selváticos continuos o con isletas de monte ‘About its habits, not much is known, except that it moves in groups in continuous wild environments or in small forests’ (88) Nada parece seguro excepto que la población de Internautas en los hogares crecerá por lo menos al doble The grammar of ideation: logical 37 ‘Nothing looks certain except that the internet users population will grow to at least double’ Hypotaxis and expansion: extension: variation: subtraction; secondary clause non-finite (89) Son horas en las que ya no se puede hacer nada sino esperar ‘Those are times when one can do nothing other than wait’ We now look at alternation, which in Spanish is only manifested through finite secondary clauses with the negative conjunction si no, such as (90).

When the exposition is expressed by means of this kind of expressions, it typically provides an alternative point of view to what is stated in the primary clause. On other occasions – mostly when the two clauses are 20 Systemic Functional Grammar of Spanish juxtaposed, that is, with no conjunctive expression linking them – the secondary clause serves as a reinforcement of the message conveyed by the primary clause; such is the case in (22). Parataxis and expansion: elaboration: exposition (21) Para que un ángulo quede determinado deberemos establecer el sentido de medición del mismo, que podrá ser: Medición en sentido horario, o sea, que corresponde al sentido de giro de las agujas del reloj .

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