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Technische Akustik by Michael Möser (auth.)

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By Michael Möser (auth.)

Dieses schon klassische Werk ist in Stoffauswahl und Aufbau einzigartig und bewährt, seine Themenauswahl widmet sich der Ingenieurausbildung. Im Fokus stehen die wichtigsten Maßnahmen zur Beruhigung der akustischen Umwelt. Alle Kapitel stellen direkt und indirekt die Frage, wie die Lautstärke in den praktisch wichtigsten akustischen Umgebungen (in Gebäuden und im Freien) verringert werden kann. Den so genannten Maßnahmenkapiteln werden die Medienkapitel vorangestellt, die das erforderliche Grundlagenwissen über die Natur von Schall und Schwingungen vermitteln.

Einige Abbildungen sind in dieser Auflage erstmals farbig dargestellt, wodurch vor allem die Wiedergabe der Interferenzmuster und die Schilderung von Beugungsvorgängen und akustischen Antennen profitieren. Aktualisierte Verweise auf schalltechnische Normen sowie kurze Zusammenfassungen und Übungsaufgaben am Ende jedes Kapitels machen das Buch zu einem wertvollen Nachschlagewerk.

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Es wird wohl nicht u ¨berraschen, dass man die Gr¨oße von Gegenst¨ anden in der Akustik (ebenso wie in der Optik) immer an der Wellenl¨ange zu messen hat. Die meisten Gegenst¨ ande und Anordnungen sind im entsprechend tiefen Frequenzbereich, in dem ihre Abmessungen klein gegen¨ uber der Wellenl¨ ange sind, akustisch unsichtbar“. Bei den hohen Frequenzen sind sie ” dagegen akustisch wirksam, indem sie – je nach Fall – Schallabsorber oder mehr oder minder komplizierte Reflektoren bzw. Diffusoren darstellen.

Durch Variation der zweiten Frequenz entsteht die Kurve gleicher Lautst¨arke, die man einfacherweise ¨ durch den Pegel des 1 kHz-Tones bezeichnet. Durch Anderung des 1 kHzPegels entsteht eine Kurvenschar, die H¨ orfl¨ ache genannt wird. 3 Die A-Bewertung 11 als gleich laut empfindet, etc. Wie man sieht, ist das Ohr im mittleren Frequenzbereich viel empfindlicher als bei den sehr hohen oder sehr tiefen Frequenzen. Seit einiger Zeit sind die Kurven gleicher Lautst¨arke-Wahrnehmung erneut in die Diskussion geraten weil sich herausgestellt hat, dass Messmethoden und Messbedingungen nicht ohne Einfluss auf das Ergebnis sind.

28) Dabei steht f (t) f¨ ur eine Signalform, deren spezifische Gestalt vom Sender – der Schallquelle – hergestellt wird. Unter c ist die im vorigen Abschnitt schon definierte Konstante zu verstehen; vorausgreifend war schon angedeutet worden, dass mit c die Schallausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit bezeichnet wird. Die folgenden Bemerkungen werden diese Tatsache rasch beweisen. 24) als Wellengleichung bezeichnet wird. 6 f¨ ur feste, eingefrorene“ Zeiten (hier f¨ ur f (t − x/c), ” also f¨ ur das negative Vorzeichen im Argument).

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