History 2

The Bourgeoisie in 18th-Century France by Elinor G. Barber

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By Elinor G. Barber

Through delving into the spiritual, monetary, social, and political attitudes and practices of the French bourgeoisie within the 18th century, Mrs. Barber dispels the concept that they have been a progressive classification bent at the destruction of the ancien régime. as an alternative, she finds that purely slowly and in part did they develop into adverse to the verified society. Her specific awareness is given to bourgeois emotions approximately, and possibilities for, social mobility. The e-book offers clean insights right into a conventional interval, either within the wealth of knowledge in regards to the bourgeois classification and within the use of sociological equipment in a ancient research. As a good instance of a brand new and more and more fruitful method of background, it is going to curiosity either the historian and the social scientist initially released in 1955.

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Especially, and fassim. 25 And Jansenist economic traditionalism must be considered in relation to the general economic "backwardness" of France, both in industry and agriculture. Although the conservative Jansenist, then, did not have great success in the tradition-breaking business field, willy-nilly he was forced into political opposition by the condemnation of his beliefs as heretical. As Jansenism became a political issue, by the support of the monarchy of papal condemnation, the conservative opposition of the Parlements to the monarchy became identified with Jansenism, and many a Jansenist law­ yer found himself, almost reluctantly, to be a political free­ thinker.

8 Henri Carre, La noblesse et Vofinion fublique au 1 Se Steele (Paris, 1920), p. 208. Unauthenticated Download Date | 4/12/16 3:54 PM THE BOURGEOISIE CLASS 19 ited degree the lower clergy and the intellectuals. Our next step must be to determine the internal hierarchical differentia­ tion of the bourgeois class, to find the sub-classes within the bourgeoisie, in order to prepare the way for our later dis­ cussion of ways of life and of mobility patterns. In establishing such a bourgeois hierarchy, it is first of all necessary to make a distinction between local and national scales of ranking.

28Boulloche, Target, p. 31· Unauthenticated Download Date | 4/12/16 3:54 PM 24 THE BOURGEOISIE CLASS style. 24 The surgeons had always been ranked well below the doctors, until the 18 th century, on account of the traditional combination of surgery with the trade of the bar­ ber. But by 1747, Barbier reported strong professional rivalry between doctors and surgeons, and he attributed this to the threatened superiority of the doctors. Increased skill on the part of the surgical profession and the high favor of M.

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