The Fate of the Dead. Studies on the Jewish and Christian by Richard Bauckham
By Richard Bauckham
This article offers a suite of experiences which specialize in own eschatology within the Jewish and early Christian apocalypses. The apocalyptic culture, from its Jewish origins until eventually the early center a long time, is studied as a continual literary culture, within which either continuity of motifs and significant adjustments in knowing of existence after demise should be charted. in addition to better-known apocalypses, a lot realization is given to these ignored apocalypses which painting human future after loss of life intimately, resembling the "Apocalypse of Peter", the "Apocalypse of the Seven Heavens", the later apocalypses of Ezra, and the 4 apocalypses of the Virgin Mary. Relationships with Greco-Roman eschatology are explored, and a number of other chapters convey how particular New testomony texts are illuminated via shut wisdom of this practice of principles and pictures of the hereafter.
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40 Cf. also Gregory Nazianzus, Or. 59; and Bolton, Aristeas, 144-146. 49 M. Eliade, Zalmoxis: The Vanishing God (trans. W. R. Trask; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972) 21-61. :lO J. S. Morrison, 'Parmenides and Er,' JHS 75 (1955) 59-68; W. Burkert, 'Das Proomium des Parmenides und die Katabasis des Pythagoras,' Phronesis 14 (1969) 1- 29. DESCENTS TO THE UNDERWORLD VIII 33 JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN APOCALYPSES In the Jewish tradition descents to the underworld are found largely within the apocalyptic tradition, in which they are ascribed to seers of the past such as Enoch, Elijah and Moses.
Ascension of the Soul and its Relevance (EPRO 99; Lciden: Brill, 1983) 38-39. 25 D. L. Page, Literary Papyri, Poetry (vol. 3 of Select Papyri; LCL; London: Heinemann, 1941) 416-421. The description of the descent is unusual, and the account of Hades focuses on gruesome description of mutilated corpses. 26 Lists in Gansehinietz, 'Katabasis,' 2379-2387. CHAPTER ONE old of the next life before being send back. So, although most of the stories we have from antiquity belong to a literary tradition, it is likely that the literary tradition had its origins in stories actually told by people who had had near-death experiences.
The vision itself is not narrated by Kirdlr in the first person; rather he reports the way it was narrated by a group of people (designated in the text by an unknown word) who were presumably visionaries who went into trance, after the performance of a ritual, and told Kirdfr what they were seeing as they experienced it. 12 (For a partial parallel fromJewish Merkavah mysticism, see Hekhalot Rabbati 18:4: the mys10 C( R. Couffignal, 'Le Psaume deJonas aonas 2,2-10): Vne catabase biblique, sa structure et sa function,' Bib 71 (1990) 542-552.