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The Making of Western Jewry, 1600-1819 by L. Kochan

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By L. Kochan

In a extensive sweep from principal Europe to eire and from the sixteenth to the early nineteenth century, this strange paintings places the Jewish neighborhood and its rabbinic and "lay" leaders on the middle of Jewish background. Of surpassing worth is Kochan's therapy of the group not just as a non secular but additionally as a political unit. It indicates the group at grips with the Reformation and the advent of the ghetto approach within the Italian states. Kochan's research of the conflict of pursuits among the few filthy rich and the multitude of terrible Jews increases doubts concerning the complete thought of "community." The later chapters seriously research the coverage of emancipation as pursued through the Jewish management in France and the German and Italian states in the course of the wars of the French revolution and the Napoleonic interval. This part discusses the failure of Jewish international relations on the Congress of Vienna. a last bankruptcy expounds the emergence of Orthodoxy by way of the tumultuous alterations in Jewish society over those centuries.

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The Jesuit preacher gave his sermons, during which the Jews were forbidden to sleep or chat, on the (Jewish) Sabbath. This choice only reinforced the Jews’ opposition. Rabbi Pinchas Horovitz, a former colleague of Heller, put himself at the head of the resistance and ‘as the outstanding ringleader of the present-day disruption’ was arrested and interrogated before a special commission. 34 Religious disputes were recurrent; for example, in 1646 the elders must petition the archbishop to silence the preacher of Sankt-Galli whose sermons were inciting the populace against the Jews.

In Hohenems in 1617, 12 Jewish families from Rheineck were given permission to settle; in 1593 one Jewish family settled in Gunzenhausen, in Franconia, consisting of the family head, two married and two unmarried sons, a son-in-law, a teacher, together with children and servants; the Judengasse in Hanau in 1603 housed some 10 families who formed a total of 159 persons by 1607. These totals are not quite so limited as they appear, the family unit being better understood as a household. A tally of the 63 Jews made at Kitzingen, near Würzburg, in 1641 shows that one household consisted of husband, wife, three children, a brother, a manservant and a maidservant, eight persons in all.

The status of Venice had multiple ramifications of a very wide stretch. There was migration and the dispersion of an extended family; commercial links encompassed the trade in jewellery, the Dutch financing of Venetian enterprise in North Africa and the Levant, ‘A Little Jerusalem’ and ‘A Great Jerusalem’ 35 and the role of the Venetian zecca as depository for Dutch funds. Two of the more influential Amsterdam rabbis – Joseph Pardo and Saul Levi Mortera – came from Venice. Venetian rabbis adjudicated and sought to resolve major theological debates in Amsterdam concerning matters of Biblical interpretation as well as the eternality (or otherwise) of punishment for the denial of central articles of belief.

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