## Transient numerical simulation of complex convection effects by Georg Ehlen

By Georg Ehlen

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38. 6 Applications: Simulations and experiments a) XLV b) Fig. 42wt%C with temperature dependent MC; characteristic numbers of weld pools after a) 1 s and b) 3 s as a function of welding power Fig. 39: Influence of welding power on shape of the weld pool in GTA welding processes. Unpublished work, /Pavlyk 03/. In the transition region the pool depth decreases again In the W-shape region the pool radius increases with increasing power Of course the absolute powers and details of the pool shapes differ due to the GTA welding conditions and different welding materials used, and of course this experiment would not be sufficient to create a theory, but it definitely supports the new theory developed in this work.

Fig. 35: Definitions of the quantities used to calculate the characteristic numbers for W-shape weld pools. 74 XLII Chapter 0 Executive summary Fig. 34 shows the temperature scale which is valid for all temperature plots of this section. 42wt%C. 1 New depth-width ratio concept In order to describe the development of the pool shapes, especially W-shape pools, some new quantities have been introduced. Corresponding to the usual habit of describing the weld pool shape by the depth/width ratio, the W-shape weld pool, and as a special case also the V-shape weld pool is characterised here by a set of four numbers, Fig.

19 shows the porosity distributions for the zero viscosity case after complete solidification of the bottom part of the casting separately for hydrogen and shrinkage porosities, and both combined. 3 The distribution of shrinkage porosities is similar to the case of shrinkage porosity formation only. 24). The total pore 3 The top part of the casting did not solidify completely due to the adiabatic boundary conditions. XXX Chapter 0 Executive summary fraction of fraction of porosities solid [–] [–] a) b) c) Fig.