Welding Metallurgy, 2nd Edition by Sindo Kou
By Sindo Kou
Up to date to incorporate new technological developments in weldingUses illustrations and diagrams to provide an explanation for metallurgical phenomenaFeatures routines and examplesAn Instructor's handbook proposing designated recommendations to all of the difficulties within the booklet is out there from the Wiley editorial division.
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Extra info for Welding Metallurgy, 2nd Edition
8 Transverse cross section of weld showing areas representing contributions from base metal and ﬁller metal. heat at the workpiece. In AC GTAW, however, electrons bombard the workpiece only during the electrode-negative half cycle, and the arc efﬁciency is thus lower. In GTAW with DCEP, the arc efﬁciency is even lower because the electrons bombard the electrode rather than the workpiece. GMAW, SMAW: Unlike in GTAW, heat transfer to the electrode can be transferred back to the workpiece through metal droplets, thus improving the arc efﬁciency.
5c shows the measurement of the combined heat transfer from the arc and the droplets, with cathode heating shifted to the tungsten electrode of a nearby GTAW torch (10). 6a. By subtracting the combined heat transfer from the arc and droplets from the total heat transfer to the workpiece, heat transfer from cathode heating was determined. 6b shows the breakdown of the total heat transfer to the workpiece into those from the arc, droplets, and cathode heating. Within the range of the power studied, the overall efﬁciency was about 80%, with about 45% from the arc, 25% from droplets, and 10% from cathode heating.
25Cr–1Mo) steel. Reprinted from Blakeley and Sanderson (17). Courtesy of American Welding Society. be welded in a single pass at a high welding speed. Consequently, the total heat input per unit length of the weld is much lower than that in arc welding, resulting in a very narrow heat-affected zone and little distortion. Reactive and refractory metals can be welded in vacuum where there is no air to cause contamination. Some dissimilar metals can also be welded because the very rapid cooling in EBW can prevent the formation of coarse, brittle intermetallic compounds.