Pure Mathematics

Where Medicine Went Wrong: Rediscovering the Path to by Bruce J. West

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By Bruce J. West

The place drugs Went unsuitable explores how the belief of a standard price has been misapplied to clinical phenomena, distorted knowing and result in fallacious scientific judgements. via new insights into the technology of complexity, conventional body structure is changed with fractal body structure, during which variability is extra indicative of healthiness than is a normal. The capricious nature of physiological platforms is made conceptually practicable through smoothing over fluctuations and considering by way of averages. yet those adaptations in such elements as middle price, respiring and strolling are even more liable to the early impact of illness than are averages. it can be important to cite from the overdue Stephen Jay Gould s e-book complete condo at the errant nature of averages: ... our tradition encodes a powerful bias both to overlook or forget about edition. we have a tendency to concentration as a substitute on measures of significant tendency, and hence we make a few negative blunders, frequently with enormous sensible import. Dr West has quantified this remark and make it beneficial for the analysis of disorder.

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Extra info for Where Medicine Went Wrong: Rediscovering the Path to Complexity (Studies of Nonlinear Phenomena in Life Science)

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For example, for the dashed curve babies and children die at a higher rate than do the adults, perhaps suggesting a Darwinian interpretation of the society. The young and weak die off relatively quick and those that survive live for a long time. For the solid curve mature adults and seniors die at a higher rate than do the children, perhaps suggesting war and a failure for society to honor its elderly. But as much fun as such speculation is, d'Alembert's point was that since the mortality curves were not known, the societal influence of inoculations on life expectancy could not be reliably predicted.

Thus, Bernoulli could have taken the variation of mortality with age into account in his arguments. But putting this aside, d'Alembert's criticism of the sociological application of probability went even deeper. 32 • Where Medicine Went Wrong D'Alembert questioned the fundamental notion of mathematical expectation, since to him, such expectation ran counter to the actions of reasonable people. For example, suppose there are two wagers that one could make, putting at risk the same amount of money.

If response to change in the external environment were at the cellular level, physiology would be much more complicated than it already is, and organs would no doubt be unstable. But nature has found that if the immediate environment of the cells is held constant, or kept within certain narrowly defined limits, then the cells can continue to perform the tasks for which they were designed and no others, even while an organ responds to the external disturbances. As long as the The Expectation of Health • 41 internal environment stays within a certain operational range, the cells will continue to function without change.

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